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Lane ( 


Sttjaca, New Uork 

SOif /iGf/vrs FO, 








CLASS OF 1876 





yigents for jfidn\iratty C/jarts- 

HOUSE BOATS supplied with every re- 
quisite for Up-Country Trips. 




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ter in the library to borrow 
books fdr home use. 

All books must be re- 
turned at end of college 
year for inspection and 

Limited books must be 
returned within the four 
week limit and not renewed. 

Students must return all 
books before leaving town. 
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the return of books wanted 
during their absence from 

Volumes of periodicals 
and of pamphlets are held 
in the library as much as 
possible. For special pur- 
poses they are given out for 
a limited time. 

Borrowers should not use 
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nd gift books," when the 
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port all cases of books 
marked or mutilated. 


Do not deface books by marks and writing. 

- a 

mail or cable. 

<3. f?EYMANN, 


The Leading Hotel 

of North China. 

^— -m— — aaaa»f»ra ^MS«» » 

DS 796.S C 5°2D22 UniVerS " y Ubrary 
Sha ^mmmmilS«u,?,?llJff travellers and 



THINGS CHINESE; or, Notes Connected with China. 

By J. Dyer Ball, M.R.A.S., EM, Civil Service, Hong Kong. 
Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. $7.50. 

" Up-to-date and replete with descriptions of everything connected with Chinese 
life and customs."— China Mail, Hong Kong." 

"A storehouse of well-digested information fit equally for the student, the 
visitor, the general reader, and the sinologue." — Shanghai Mercury. 


T. R. Jernigan, formerly Consul -General of the United States at 
Shanghai. $6.00. 

"A trained writer, and an acute observer and thinker, Mr. Jernigan's former 
position as Consul-General of the United States. at Shanghai, and his subsequent 
residence here and practice as a lawyer, have enabled him to acquaint himself 
very thoroughly with his subject in many respects, and the result is a volume 
which will be widely read and universally appreciated." — North China Daily News. 

"Enough has been-adduced to show that this book possesses the two merits 
of interest and information. It opens up to him who would fain know somewhat 
of this great country, at the present moment the 'cynosure of neighbouring eyes,' 
a short road to the acquisition of a knowledge of the whys and. wherefores of 
Celestial customs which otherwise had been a long and weary struggle, and even 
then, perhaps, unattended with success. And it will long remain, if we mistake 
not, the handy and popular book of reference on matters Chinese." — Shanghai 
Daily Press. 

" We frankly confess to having learnt a great deal from a perusal of the work 
about both the business methods and the policy of China that we never knew before ; 
and what is still more valuable in a book of this kind, to have had many things 
that we had gathered by experience presented to us in a new light owing to the 
powerful grasp which the author generally has of his, subject and by aid of the 
powerful search-light under which Mr. Jernigan examines the problems and 
phenomena with which he deals, ... It is a valuable addition to the inexhaustible 
literature on China, and Mr. Jernigan is to be congratulated upon having made 
such good use of his time and opportunities in China, as it is evident from the 
work he has done in trying to master and present to others the many little under- 
stood facts of 'China's Business Methods' and the motives which underlie her 
' Policy * in a style easily understood and at the same time presenting solid 
principles." — China Gazette. 

Smith, D.D. Fifth edition, revised, with additional illustrations. 
DemySvo. $5.00. 

Miss E. R. Scidmore in "China the Long-lived Empire," says : "Nothing can 
ever displace Dr. Smith's 'Chinese Characteristics,' the keenest and most 
appreciative study of the Chinese human being yet made." 

VILLAGE LIFE IN CHINA. A Study in Sociology. By Arthur 
H. Smith, D.D., author of "Chinese Characteristics." Demy 8vo, 
art binding, with 9 full-page illustrations. $5.00. 
The Athenaeum says : " Gives a more faithful representation of village life in 
China than any that has ever yet been attempted." 


D.D., President of St. John's College, Shanghai. Demy 8vo, with 

5 maps. $3.00. 

" The present volume is written to meet a practical need. The author has long 

felt in his work as a teacher the want of a short history of China. Of larger 

histories, and of monographs treating fully of some one period, there is no lack, but 

a concise outline of Chinese history accenting the turning-points in the life of the 

nation has not yet been produced."— Extractfrom Preface. 



Drapers, Milliners, 
Ladies 9 6? Gentlemen's 


Carpet and Furnishing 


Electro-Plate Ware, Cutlery, 

Fancy Articles, 

Trunks and Travellers' Requisites, 

Soaps and Perfumery, 

Stationery, etc. 


Indo-GMna Steam Navigation Co, Ld. 

JARDINE, MATHESON & CO., General Managers. 



... Il80 

Suisang ... 


... Il6o 

Kingsing ... 


... 2521 

Pansang ... 


••■ 2339 


Tai Sang 




•■• 1737 


Yuen Sang 

... 1659 

Mausang ... 


... I659 

Kumsang ... 


-. 1783 

Tingsang ... 

Wosang ... 

... I783 



- 1559 

Keangwo ... 


... I562 

Hopsang ... 

On Sang 

... 2§02 



••• 2665 

Namsang ... 


... IO65 

Yehsang ... 


... 2412 

Choysang ... 


... 2454 



... 2300 

Tuckwo ... 


... 23OO 

Waishing ... 


... 1886 

Columbia ... 


... 2790 

... 1983 

... 22SI 

... 2217 

... 2672 

... 1738 

... 2l6l 

... 3236 

... 165O 

■■■ 3459 

... 2174 

... 2148 

... 2143 

■ ■• 4034 

... 1966 

... 2284 

... 2284 

... 3005 

... 1864 

••■ 534 


Sailings every three or four days. 


Frequent Sailings. Sailings every few days. 


Sailings every four to five days. 


SHANGHAI to HANKOW every Tuesday and Friday night (midnight). 

HANKOW to SHANGHAI every Monday and Thursday night. 

HANKOW to ICHANG every eight to nine days. 

HANKOW to CHANGSHA at frequent intervals, generally seven 
to eight days. 

HONGKONG to MANILA. Sailings every ten days. 


Sailings every fortnight. 

For further particulars apply to — 


No. 27, The Bund, SHANGHAI. 







Minister of Union Church, Shanghai 



' 1 " nit 

: -I I i. 






THE need of a Guide to Shanghai has been felt for a 
long time. Numerous inquiries have been made for 
one both by new residents and tourists, who, since the 
Boxer outbreak in 1900, have visited Shanghai in increasing 
numbers. The days for passing direct from Hongkong to 
Japan are gone by, and the growing popularity of the Siberian 
Railway, the service of which is but temporarily suspended, is 
likely to make Shanghai the starting-place for a large number 
of residents in the Far East, selecting that route for their 
return to Europe. 

In compiling this work I have kept in mind the needs 
of tourists. This is a Guide to, not a History qf, Shanghai. 
That is why I have placed purely historical matters last. I 
trust that the plan adopted of giving the first place to 
matters l that the raw new arrival needs to know will commend 

In drawing up the plan of this work there were two 
courses open to me : that which I have adopted, giving in- 
formation about the sights of Shanghai in the text of the 
different routes ; or I might have grouped the information 
about the sights under heads — placing all information, about 
temples for instance, together. The method I have adopted 
is, I think, the better. It saves continual reference to the 
index, compelling the visitor to be always turning from one 
part of the book to the other. As it is, the Central district, 
for example, may be done in an orderly way, sights of all 


kinds following in their local sequence, involving the minimum 
of leaf turning. 

I have to thank the secretaries of the various clubs and 
societies for so readily giving me the information required ; 
and Mr. D. Satow and Mr. G. R. Mitchell for the use of 
a number of very interesting photographs. 

In regard to the work generally, as no other guide to 
Shanghai on a similar plan exists, I have had laboriously 
to gather information as best I could myself. If there are 
mistakes, as there are likely to be, those who have attempted 
a similar task will be most indulgent. When one has to 
deal with such multitudinous items some mistakes are 

In regard to the Chinese names of temples, etc., I have 
written them as pronounced by a local Chinese scholar. 

I believe, too, the book will be of use not only to tourists 
and newcomers, but also to large numbers of residents of 
long standing, who have often no idea of the interesting things 
to be seen in Shanghai. If I have succeeded in dissipating 
the idea thai "there is nothing worth seeing in Shanghai," 
I shall be satisfied. I believe that our temples and guild- 
houses, for instance, are much more beautiful and imposing 
buildings than any in Japan, saving only the Shoguns' 
" Tombs '' at Tokio and Nikko. 

C. E. D. 



i. Pidgin-English 

2. Money 

3. Weights and Measures . 

4. Banks 

5. Hotels and Restaurants 

6. Consulates 

7. Post and Telegraph Offices 

8. Books and Maps 

9. Newspapers and Periodicals 

10. Jinrickshaws and Carriages 

11. Shipping Communication 

12. European and Native Stores 


Routes with Chief Objects of Interest 

1. Foreign 

1. The Bund .... 

2. Central District . . .... 

3. Bubbling Well Road . . . . 

4. Northern District, East of North Szechuen Road 

5. Northern District, West of North Szechuen Road 

6. Broadway to the Point 

7. Sinza .... . . 

8. The Country Roads ... ... 

9. Drive to Siccawei ... 

10. Drive to Loongwha Pagoda 

11. French Settlement, East. Quai de France . 

12. French Settlement, West. Rue du Consulat 














2. Chinese 

1. Suburb of Nantao. 106 

2. Interior of Native City 112 

3. Walk Round Walls of City 124 


3. Outside Excursions 



3. Houseboat Excursions . 

. 129 



Public Institutions 

1. Churches. . .... 

2. Missions . 

3. Schools . . . . 

4. Freemasonry 

5. Theatres and Places of Entertainment 

6. Parks and Gardens 

7. Public Library 

8. Chinese Festivals 

9. Volunteers 


Fire Brigade 

Public Band 





Clubs and Associations 

1. National and Local ... 

2. Social 

3. Literary and Scientific 

4. Professional and Business 

5. Philanthropic ... 

6. Sporting . . . 


Historical and Descriptive 

General Description and History of Shanghai 

a. History of District 

b. Physical Features 
c Meteorology 

d. Health . . . , 

e. History of Native City 
/ History of Foreign Settlements 
g. American Settlement . . . . 
h. French Settlement . ... 
i. Government of the International Settlements 
j. Commerce 




i. British Consulate. 

2. Iltis Memorial .... 

3. Sir Harry Parkes's Monument . 

4. Custom House ... 

5. Hongkong and Shanghai Bank . 

6. Shanghai Club ... 

7. Native Store, Nanking Road 

8. Nanking Road 

g. Town Hall 

10. Louza Police Station . 

11. Honan Road ... 

12. Chinese Actor 

13. Chinese Actress 

14. Native Doorway, Ningpo Road . 

15. Central Police Station 

16. The Cathedral — Holy Trinity Church 

17. Union Church . ... 

18. Sikh Mounted Trooper 

19. Race Club 

20. Country Club 

21. Chang Su Ho's Gardens 

22. Chang Su Ho's Gardens, Arcadia Hall 

23. Yu Yuen Gardens 

24. Two of the "Four Brothers" . 

25. German Consulate and Church. 

26. Street Scene . . ... 

27. Soochow Creek 

28. Dye House, Seward Road 

29. Hongkew Market .... 

30. Group of Women . 












List of Illustrations 

31. Shanse Bankers' Guild House . 

32. Garden Bridge 

33. Astor House Hotel: Exterior . 

34. Astor House Hotel ; Interior . 

35. In the Soochow Cemetery, Sinza Road 

36. Graves in the Cantonese Cemetery . 

37. Idol, Loongwha Temple 

38. Loongwha Pagoda . 

39. French Consulate. 

40. French Bund . 

41. Chinese Tumblers . 

42. French Town Hall 

43. Women going to Worship . 

44. North Gate of Native City 

45. North Gate from the Inside 

46. View in Nantao 

47. Tower in Swatow Guild-House, Nantao 

48. Chinese Bund — Women Washing 

49. Sampan Woman ... 

50. North Gate of Native City 

51. Native City Temple 

52. City Gardens — Dragon Gate 

53. Willow-Pattern Tea House 

54. In the Native City 

55. Shrine, City Temple . 

56. View in Native City . 

57. Slightly Congested 

58. Stone Carving on Roofs in the City Gardens 

59. Chinese Architecture in the City Gardens . 

60. Sampan 

61. Irrigation Wheel . 

62. Dragon Boat . 

63. Foochow Junk 

64. Shanghai Junks 

Map in Pocket at the End 



IT is quite possible for the traveller to visit all the places 
and see all the sights mentioned in these pages without 
knowing a word of Chinese, but he will find that familiarity 
with pidgin-English will be of very great assistance. A good 
account of the origin of pidgin-English is given in Hunter's 
"The Fanquse at Canton." It is substantially this : Pidgin- 
English arose at Canton. The first foreign traders had neither 
inclination to learn Chinese nor facilities for it. The Chinese 
Government cut off the head of any Chinaman who presumed 
to teach the foreigner Chinese. The astute Chinaman himself 
was, however, equal to the situation, and gradually evolved a 
language made up of foreign and Chinese words, put together 
without syntax or grammar, " conforming them to his own 
monosyllabic form of expression." 

Pidgin-English is an unique use of English or other foreign 
words with the Chinese idiom. The traveller must remember 
that pidgin-English is not, as is often fondly thought by the 
visitor, easily made by adding "ee" to any and every word. 
This mode of speech no doubt started in the days of the early 
Portuguese traders, one hundred years anterior to the arrival 
of the English at Canton ; that is proved by the number of 
Portuguese words in it. 

When, however, the English appeared on the scene, English 
words were adopted by the Chinese in the largest numbers, 
and the dialect or. lingo became known as pidgin-English. 

Pidgin is a corruption of business, so pidgin-English means 
business English. It is widely employed for any kind of 


affair: "this is a bad business" is, "this b'long very bad 
pidgin." Compradore is from the Portuguese coinpra, to buy ; 
joss, for god, from dios; maskee, never mind, from masque, 
never mind; junk, from the Portuguese sound of chueng, in 
the dialect of the coast where they traded. Of Indian words 
we have shroff, a money dealer, or now a money expert; 
tiffin, lunch ; godown, warehouse, from kadang; lac, coolie, chit. 

There are many Chinese words in it : for instance, chop, 
from cho, a document — it means a bill, a stamp, or a receipt ; 
chow, for food, is also a Chinese word, and kumshaw, a gratuity, 
means golden sand. 

A good rule for visitors to Shanghai and the Treaty Ports 
is to try the natives with ordinary English first ; if that fails, 
speak pidgin-English. The dignity of the native is much 
ruffled if he is addressed in pidgin when he understands 
ordinary English. 

General Rules. — Put the object first and use only the 
nominative case of pronouns, he, she ; " talkee he " means 
" tell him." Use my for me, discard grammar, and talk in 
roots of words and monosyllables. 

I. General 
That will do . . . Can do. 

That will not do . . No can do. 

(These have a very wide 
That is better . That b long more better. 

Who is that (it) ? . What man ? 

What is that ? . . . What thing ? 

Tell him Talkee he. 

Give me that . Pay my. 

I don't want it . My no wanchee. 

There That side. 

Here . . . This side. 

Please let me know . . Talkee my. 

Just let me look . . . Pay my look see. 
Do you understand? . . Savvy? 


I don't understand . 

Can you teli me what this is ? 

Go and see, and come back and 

tell me 
That won't do . 
Where is it ? . 
Where is that from ? 
What o'clock is it ? . 
I don't know . 
Wait a bit 
Be quick. 
Come at once . 
This is mine . 
Stop that 
Never mind 
That is a bad job . 
Business (or any kind of affair) 
Religion .... 

Is Mr. at home ? . 

Is Mrs. at home ? 

He (she) is not at home . 

Can you do this for me ? . 

Why not ? 

Go upstairs 

Go downstairs . 

I have left my hat downstairs 

go and get it for me 
Tell him to come back . 
Tell him to come in the morning 
Do you mean it ? . 
What do you mean by that ? . 
Afterwards (by-and-bye) . 
I will pay you later . 
I am afraid it is going to rain . 

I don't want to do this 
I want it like that . 
This is very good . 

My no savvy. 

What thing this b'long ? 

You look see talkee my. 

No b'long ploper (proper). 

What side ? 

What side catchee ? 

What time ? 

My no savvy. 

Man man. 


Come chop chop. 

This b'long my. 

No can do. 


That b'long bad pidgin. 


Joss pidgin. 

Mas'r have got ? 

Mississy have got ? 

No have got. 

Can do ? 

What fashion no can ? 

Go topside. 

Go bottomside. 

Go catchee hat downside. 

Talkee he come this side. 

Talkee come morning time. 

Talkee true ? 

What fashion ? 

Bime bye. 

Bime bye makee pay. 

My too muchee fear makee 

Too muchee trouble pidgin. 
Wanchee all same. 
This b'long number one. 


How are you?. . . . ) Chin-chin (a greeting gene- 
Good-bye . . . . / rally). 
Tell the cook to prepare dinner "I Talkee cook three piecee 

for three to-day . . . / man dinner. 
If you cannot do it, I must get ~i S'pose you no can do, must 

some one else . . . / catchee 'nother man. 
Bother; to find fault with . Bobbery. 
If you don't do this, you will get ) S'pose no do, my makee 

into trouble . . . . j largee bobbery. 


Get me a rickshaw 


Put the rickshaw down 

Go to the Bund 

Nanking Road 
Kiukiang Road 
Hankow Road 
Foochow Road 
French Settlement . 
Go quicker 
Be careful 


. Catchee my one piece rick- 
. Man-man. 
. Faung au lay. 

Bund (if that fails, try Whang- 
. Maloo ; Doo-maloo. 


. Sz-maloo. 
. Feranghi ; Fa-lan-zi. 
. Hongkew. 

Auso ti. 

Dong sing. 

III. At an 

Get me some hot water . 
I want a bath .... 
Is there a barber in the hotel ? 
I want some tea at once . 

A tip 

Show me my room . 
Get me a washerman 

Call me at 7 o'clock 

I want to go for a walk . 


Pay my hot water. 

My wanchee bath. 

Barber have got ? 

Catchee tea chop-chop. 


What side my room ? 

Catchee my one piece wash* 

Morning time talkee my 7 

My wanchee walkee. 


Will you be sure to do it ? . Can secure ? 
Get me a carriage with one pony Catchee carriage one piece 


IV. Shopping 

How much is that ? 

Which is better, this or that ? , 

I'll give you two dollars for it . 

Is that the genuine price ? 

I don't want that 

This is what I want 

That is too dear 

Show me another kind 

I will take two of them . 
Will it be cheaper to take two ? 

What is this used for ? 

I don't like that 

Is this the best quality ? . 

Is that the lowest price ? . 

I can't take any lower price ? . 

Can you make an allowance on 

damaged goods ? . 
Is the bargain settled ? 

How muchee ? 

AVhat piecee more good ? 

My can pay two dollars. 

That price b'long true ? 

My no wanchee. 

So fashion my wanchee. 

Too muchee dear. 

Pay my look see 'nother 

Pay my two piecee. 
S'pose catchee two piecee, 

can more cheap ? 
What this b'long ? 
No likee. 

This b'long more better ? 
No can cuttee ? 
True b'long bottomside, last 

time talkee. 

You can lolly my ? 
Can puttee book ? 

V. At a Photographer's 

I want these twelve plates de- } Twelve piecee wanchee wal- 

veloping . . . . i lop. 
How much a plate ? . . One piecee how much ? 

Can you send this to my hotel ? Hotel side can sendee ? 


Travellers will find two kinds of money used in Shanghai 
and the treaty ports — taels and cash, dollars and cents ; the 
former Chinese, the latter introduced by foreigners and now 
freely used by the Chinese in the ports. 


The tael is the commercial currency of the port ; it is used 
in large transactions, in piece-goods, in auctions, buying and 
selling land, etc. It is not a coin, but a weight of silver. 
Once worth 6s. &d., it is now worth only about 2s. 6d. English 
money. Steamer fares on the coast are also generally in taels. 
The tael is divided into 10 mace, and i mace equals 10 can- 
dareens or tael cents. The tael is therefore on the decimal 
system, divided into ioo tael cents. The traveller, however, 
will not have much to do with taels nor with cash (copper 
coins with a square hole in the centre, which have preserved 
their shape for over a thousand years). There are about 1,100 
cash to the tael. 

A string of cash is handy on houseboat excursions to buy 
native produce. There are many places up-country where the 
natives have no knowledge of any other currency. 

The most universally used coin is the Mexican dollar ($) ; a 
handsome piece of silver. There are ioo cents to the dollar. 
Subsidiary coins are 20 cent, 10 cent, and 5 cent pieces. 
The traveller must avoid other dollars, such as the Hongkong 
and Singapore dollar, as they are at a discount. Jinrickshaw- 
men and Chinese will accept Hongkong 5 cent pieces, but not 
as a rule 10 and 20 cent pieces. 

All the leading banks issue notes for one, five, ten dollars, 
and upwards. These notes are the most convenient method of 
carrying money. As the Mexican dollar weighs about an ounce, 
not many can be carried with comfort. 

In dealing with money, the traveller must look out for 
himself. The Chinese have an ingenious method of cutting off 
the face of a dollar, filling it with base metal, and soldering the 
face on again. One can generally tell by the ring of the coin. 
The small coinage is also subject to forgery. The rule is not 
to have more small money than necessary ; and if in paying a 
'rickshaw coolie 20 cents, he returns it, saying "blass" (brass), 
the chances are he is right, and it is best to give him another. 

The majority of Mexican dollars in circulation have a 
" chop '' or mark of some business firm on them. This is 
supposed to mark their genuineness. Chinese shroffs are 
past-masters at testing coinage. 


It is useful to know that roughly the tael is one-third more 
than the dollar. 

The rates of exchange are published in the morning papers. 
Tables of exchange may be purchased. 

Silver coins in circulation at Shanghai and other treaty 
ports : — 

Mexican dollar, worth about is. gd. to is. nd. 
20 cent piece ,, „ \d. 

10 „ „ ,, „ 2d. 

The tael (worth about 2s. 6d.) is a weight of silver. 
The cash is a copper coin (worth about 800 to the Mexican 

Weights and Measures 

The English pound (avoirdupois) and yard are used in all 
foreign and Chinese stores that a stranger is likely to visit. 

The Chinese weights and measures most frequently em- 
ployed are the catty (13 lb.), the picul (1333 lb.), and the mow 
(equals about one-sixth of an acre). 


Banque de l'lndo-China — 1, Quai de France, "corner du Yang- 
Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China — 18, The Bund. 
Deutsch-Asiatische Bank — 14, The Bund 
Guaranty Trust of New York — 7, Kiukiang Road. 
Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation — j. 2, The Bund. 
Imperial Bank of China — 8, The Bund. 
International Banking Corporation — 7, Kiukiang Road. 
Mercantile Bank of India — Care of Jardine, Matheson & Co. 
Netherlands Trading Society — 20, The Bund. 
Russo-Chinese Bank — 15, The Bund. 
Sino-Belgian Bank — 13, Hankow Road. 
Yokohama Specie Bank— 31, The Bund. 

The ordinary office hours are from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. All 
these banks exchange money, grant drafts, and transact all the 
business required by travellers. 


It is as well to note that the banks are closed on about 
twenty days in the year : four days at China New Year (end of 
January or early February) ; Good Friday to and including 
Easter Monday ; the Chinese Dragon Festival (end of May or 
•early June) ; Whit Monday ; first two days in July ; Chinese 
Mid-Autumn Festival; two days (early in October) ; Christmas 
Day and Boxing Day and the day following ; New Year's Day 
and day following. 

Chinese Banks 

Visitors would be interested in inspecting one or two 
Chinese banks. For ages the Chinese have had many of the 
banking facilities which are comparatively recent in the West. 
The leading banks have ramifications all over the empire. By 
their means large sums are transmitted not only to native 
merchants, but to missionaries and others in the remotest 
corner of the empire. In fact, without the facilities given by 
their institution foreigners in out-of-the-way places could not 
be paid at all. Their notes, bills, etc., are freely and un- 
questionably accepted by the foreign merchants in Shanghai 
and the treaty ports. Most of the Shanghai native bankers 
belong to the province of Shansi or the city and neighbourhood 
of Ningpo. 

The following is one of the leading bankers : 
The Hen Tee Tsong — Ningpo Road. 


Astor House— This hotel, founded by the late Mr. D. C. 
Jansen, is situated on the Whangpoo Road, immediately 
over the Garden Bridge. It caters for first-class travel 
only ; it is now owned by a company, and has been 
largely refitted, and much enlarged by a considerable 
addition at the rear of the main building. It has the 
advantage of possessing a garden overlooking the river. 
Tariff on application. 



Central Hotel — On the Bund, at the corner of the Nanking 
Road, with annexe over the way on Nanking Road. 
This hotel commands a splendid view over the river 
and Bund. Rooms, $5 per diem and upwards ; 
breakfast, 75 cents, or $18 per month ; tiffin, $1, or 
$23 per month; dinner, $i - 5o, or $25 per month; 
full board, $50 per month. 

Mercantile and Family Hotel — 18, Nanking Road. To reach it, 
go up Nanking Road, cross the Szechuen Road, and 
this hotel is up an entry, just past Watson's store. 
Tariff on application. 

Hdtel des Colonies — 72, Rue Montauban, in the French Settle- 
ment. Cross to the French side of the Yang-king- 
pang Creek, and go up the Rue du Consulat. Rooms, 
$5 to $12 a day for one person, $10 to $15 for two 
persons; breakfast, $075 ; tiffin, $1; dinner, $r ; 
breakfast and tiffin, $30 a month ; tiffin and dinner, 
$40 a month; tiffin or dinner, $25 a month; full 
board, $45 a month. The term for rooms are subject 
to arrangement. 

Metropole Hotel — One mile from the Bund, up the Nanking 
Road. Owing to its position overlooking the race- 
course, this hotel has the advantage of the wind from 
the cool quarter during the summer. Its special feature 
is its musical dinners. Rooms, $3 to $6 a day ; 
breakfast, $075 ; tiffin, $1; dinner, $i'5o; full board, 
$50 per month. 
Runners meet the steamers from all these hotels ; omnibuses 

also from some. 


Grill Rooms — 8, Canton Road. Rooms may be had at this 
house. Board and lodging, $60 to $90, according to 
rooms ; breakfast, $35 ; tiffin and dinner, $30 ; tiffin 
only, $18. 

Restaurant Milan — 38, 39, Szechuen Road. 

Bernadi Brothers — 20, Nanking Road. 

Sweetmeat Castle— Nanking Road (afternoon tea). 



Austro- Hungary — 42-44, Whangpoo Road. 

Belgium — 17, Chaoufoong Road. 

Denmark — 25, Whangpoo Road. 

France — Rue dujConsulat. 

Germany — 9 and 10, Whangpoo Road 

Great Britain — 33, The Bund. 

Italy— Bubbling Well Road. 

Japan — 1, North jYangtsze Road (Whangpoo Road). 

Netherlands — 45, Markham Road. 

Portugal — 38, Haskell Road. 

Russia — 3 1 a, Szechuen Road. 

Spain — 31, Range Road. 

Sweden and Norway — 2, North Soochow Road (near Garden 

United States— 36, Whangpoo Road. 

Post Offices 

British — 7,JPekin Road (corner of Pekin and Museum Roads). 
Chinese — Hankow Road, in the Custom House Compound. 

Numerous pillar-boxes about the settlement. 
Note. — These must not be used for posting letters for 

despatch by any of the foreign post offices. 
French — 61, Rue Montauban, French Settlement. Over bridge 

crossing Yang-king-pang Creek, up the creek side, and 

first turn to the left. 
German — Foocho w; Road. 

Japanese — 20A and 20B, Boone Road, Hongkew. 
Russian — 7, Quinsan Gardens, Hongkew. Up North Szechuen 

Road, and then to the right. 
United States of America — 36, Whangpoo Road, at the office 

of the United States Consulate-General. 
All ordinary postal business is transacted. Roughly, the 
offices are open from 8 a.m. to 5 or 6 p.m. 

Particulars of emails are advertised in the daily papers ■ it 
is impossible and unnecessary to give them here. Generally 

Books, Maps, &c. 

speaking, the mail services are now so frequent that a letter 
may be posted any time. 

Note. — No telegraphic work is done at the post offices. 

Telegraphic Offices 

The offices for the transmission of telegrams to all parts of 
the world are those of the Great Northern Telegraph Company 
and the Eastern Extension Australia and China Telegraphic 
Company, Ltd., 7, The Bund (entrance by a gateway a little 
north of the Shanghai Club). 

Books and Maps 

Those who desire further information on Chinese manners 
and customs are recommended the following books, which will 
be found both profitable and interesting reading : — 
Dyer Ball's " Things Chinese," 
Rev. Arthur Smith's "Chinese Characteristics," 
,, ,, ,, " Village Life in China," 

Dr. Wells Williams's " The Middle Kingdom " ; 
and for those who make the houseboat trips, 

Thos. Ferguson's Map of the Waterways near Shanghai, 
,, „ Map of the Waterways round Soochow, 

will be found invaluable. 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

I. English 

1. North China Daily News (morning paper) — 17, The Bund. 

The first sheet published in Shanghai was the Daily 
Shipping List. This was converted into the North 
China Daily News on July 1st, 1864. Official notifica- 
tions appear in this paper, and all shipping intelligence 
is very accurately done. 

2. Shanghai Mercury (evening paper) — 24 and 25, Nanking 

Road. It first appeared as an evening paper on 
April 17th, 1879. 


3. China Gazette (evening paper) — 16, Pekin Road. First 

issued July 2nd, 1894. 

4. Shanghai Times (morning paper) — First issued in 1901. 

5. Shanghai Daily Press (morning paper) — First issued in 


II. French 

1. Echo de Chine (morning) — 49, Rue du Consulat. 

III. German 

1. Der Ostasiatische Lloyd — 24 and 25, Nanking Road. First 
issued October 1st, 1886. 


1. North China Herald — The weekly edition of the North 

China Daily News. 

2. Celestial Empire — The weekly edition of the Shanghai 


These two are very useful for Shanghai people at 
Tiome who wish to keep in touch with the East. 

The China Gazette and Echo de Chine have also 
weekly editions of their papers. 
Sport and Gossip— Founded in January, 1897, as an organ of 

sport and the drama. Sunday mornings. 
Tke Union — Mercury Office. This was once the Temperance 


The Missionary Recorder — Presbyterian Mission Press. 


The East of Asia — Published by the North China Daily News. 
It appears quarterly, and is richly illustrated. 

The Rattle — Humorous and satirical. 



A very large number of newspapers and periodicals are 
issued in Chinese. Shanghai is the great centre for all 
literature in the native tongue ; its native press circulates 
all over the Empire. It had a great deal to do with the 
present Emperor's reform schemes. 

Among native daily papers the Sin Vung Pao Kway and 
the Sung Pau are most influential. 

The Wan Kwoh Kung Pao, a monthly magazine, issued 
by the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General 
Knowledge, has a wide circulation. 


There are some 5,000 jinrickshaws plying for hire in the 
settlement. Even should the electric trams begin to run, they 
will no doubt continue to be used. They take you to your own 
door, as the trams never could — no small advantage on a wet 
day. The legal fares sanctioned by the council are as follows : 

Engaged by distance — For each mile, or less than a mile, 43 

cash, or 5 cents. 
Engaged by time — For one hour, 129 cash, or 15 cents; for 

each subsequent hour, 86 cash, or 10 cents. 

These are the fares as recently revised by the Council. The 
point to note is that 5 cents is now the minimum fare. 

These revised fares are to the advantage of the coolies in 
short runs, but to their disadvantage in long ones. This 
would give a coolie 15 cents for a run out to the Bubbling 
Well, surely an inadequate sum ; 25 cents, at least, should in 
equity be paid for that run. 


Bund (Garden Bridge) to Yang-king-pang Creek . 5 cents. 
Bund, up Nanking Road, to Recreation Ground . 10 cents. 

Bund to the Race Club 10 cents. 

Bund to Carter Road . . . . . -15 cents. 

Livery Stables 

Garden Bridge to Wayside . . . . .10 cents. 
Nanking Road or Bund to Railway Station . . 15 cents. 
Foot of Nanking Road to south end of French 

Bund -15 cents. 

Note that 'rickshaws licensed for the International Settle- 
ment are not allowed to run in the French Settlement, and 
vice versa. Many of the coolies are licensed for both settle- 
ments. These should be taken when going to the French 
Settlement. Look out for the double licence on the back 
of the vehicle. 

Coolies frequently attempt to extort exorbitant fares from 
newcomers. The visitor must not let himself be imposed 

Livery Stables 

Shanghai is well supplied with excellent livery stables. No 
place in the world has more carriages to the population. There 
are three foreign-owned stables, in which satisfaction can be 
guaranteed : — 
The Shanghai Horse Bazaar, Bubbling Well Road (opposite 

the Racecourse). This company has a branch stable, 

20A, Foochow Road. 
The Dallas Horse Repository, 2, Mohawk Road (next the Race 

The George Dallas Stables, 1, Bubbling Well Road (opposite 

Metropole Hotel). 
There are numerous Chinese stables, but the above are far 
the best. 

The charges for carriages at these three stables are much 
alike. Rubber-tired victoria or brougham and one pony, 
morning or afternoon, $4; all day, $5; with pair of horses, $7. 
A carriage may be hired by the month for about $60, including 
driver. Riding ponies are $3 a ride, or $40 a month. Livery 
for riding ponies is $24 a month, for horses $26. 

Auctions of horses and ponies are held periodically at the 
Horse Bazaar and Dallas Repository. 

Shipping 1 Communications 


Many people are afraid of venturing into these gaily painted, 
hooded boats, but without reason. They are safe enough. 
The fares are : 
Engaged by distance — For half a mile, or less, 43 cash, or 

10 cents; for each subsequent half-mile, 43 cash, or 

5 cents. 
Engaged by time — For each quarter of an hour, or less, 90 

cash, or 10 cents. 

Shipping' Communication 

All that can be done here is to give a list of the lines 
■engaged in passenger traffic out of Shanghai. Full particulars 
may be obtained from the various companies. 

I give, first, the lines to foreign countries ; secondly, those 
by which local ports may be reached. 


Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company — 24, The 

Messageries Maritimes — French Bund, next French Consulate. 
Norddeutscher Lloyd — Melchers & Co., French Bund. 
JNippon Yusen Kaisha — North Yangtsze Road. 
Canadian Pacific Royal Mail — Jardine, Matheson & Co., 27, 

The Bund. 
China Navigation Company — Butterfield & Swire, French Bund. 
Eastern & Australian Steamship Company — Gibb, Livingston & 

Co., 2, Jinkee Road. 
Northern Pacific Steamship Company — Dodwell & Co., Canton 

Road (corner of the Bund). 
Occidental & Oriental Steamship Company and Pacific Mail 

Steamship Company — Fearon, Daniel & Co., 21A, 

Szechuen Road. 
East Asiatic Steamship Company — 16, The Bund. 
Chinese Eastern Railway Company — 10, The Bund. 

Shipping* Communications 

i. Lines to Europe 

Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company — (a) Mail 
service fortnightly, connecting at Colombo ; (b) inter- 
mediate service every fourteen or fifteen days. 

Messageries Maritimes — Fortnightly service alternating with, 
P. & O. 

Note. — In the case of both these companies, the 
tender leaves Shanghai to join the steamer at Woosung 
the night before sailing. 

Norddeutscher Lloyd — Fortnightly service (calls at Southampton). 

Nippon Yusen Kaisha — Fortnightly service (calls at London). 

East Asiatic Company — Service monthly. Does not touch any 
English port. 

2. Lines to United States of America 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha — Fortnightly to Seattle. 
Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company — To San Francisco. 
Pacific Mail Steamship Company — To San Francisco. 
Northern Pacific Steamship Company — To Tacoma and Portland. 
Toyo Kisen Kaisha. 

3. Lines to Canada 

Canadian Pacific Royal Mail Service — To Vancouver every three 
weeks in June and July ; otherwise every twenty-four 
to twenty-nine days. Other boats, twenty-one to thirty 

4. Lines to Australia 

Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company — Vid Colombo. 
Eastern & Australian Steamship Company — Monthly service. 
China Navigation Company — About three weeks. 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha — Monthly service. 

5. Lines to Japan 

The principal ports in Japan — Nagasaki, Kobe, Yokahama — 
are best reached by the mail steamers to Canada and the 
United States ; also by the Norddeutscher Lloyd, the Messa- 
geries Maritimes, and the Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 

European Stores 


It is impossible to give details of the sailings of steamers to 
the ports on the coast of China likely to be visited by tourists. 
To some, as Tientsin, there are frequent sailings, sometimes 
in the season a boat almost every day ; to others, like Wen- 
chow, there is a boat once a week ; and to others, like Amoy, 
the sailings are quite irregular. 

The best plan is to watch the Shanghai daily papers, in which 
full notices of all sailings are given, and apply to the companies 

Corea and Vladivostock are reached by the steamers of the 
East Asiatic and Chinese Engineering and Mining Co. 

Note — As regards all these coast steamers, it must be noted 
that they do not sail with the punctuality of mail steamers. 
Hence ample margin must be allowed for connection at other 

Visitors to the coast may also be reminded that these local 
steamers, being small compared with mail steamers, carry 
comparatively few passengers — a dozen or so first class. Hence 
early application for a passage should be made. 

European Stores 

Hall & Holtz (" Fuh-Lee "), 14, Nanking Road, provision mer- 
chants, bakers, tailors and outfitters, furnishers, drapers, 
and milliners. 

Lane Crawford & Co. ("Ta-Shing "), n, Nanking Road, ship- 
chandlers, grocers, tailors, drapers, milliners, etc. 

Weeks and Co., Ltd., corner of Nanking and Kiangse Roads, 
drapers, outfitters, milliners, carpet and furnishing 
warehousemen, fancy goods dealers. 

Broadway Drapery and Outfitting Stores, corner of Broadway 
and Seward Roads. 

Books, Maps, Fancy Goods, etc. 

Kelly & Walsh, n, The Bund (near the Hongkong and 
Shanghai Bank). 

European Stores 

Brewer & Co., 31, Nanking Road (corner of Nanking and 

Kiangse Roads). 
These firms have a magnificent collection of English books, 
and all important publications on China, Japan, and the Far 
Max Nossler & Co., 38, Nanking Road (past Brewer's Store). 

This is a German firm. 
Missionary Home, 1, Quinsan Gardens. Books, religious and 

N.B. — Maps. The best cheap general map of China is 
that published by the China Inland Mission. The Daily 
Mail commercial map of China is very useful for showing 
railway concessions, coal-fields, etc. 

Photographic Materials 
Grenard & Co., C333, Honan Road (corner of Honan and 

Hankow Roads). 
Llewellyn & Co., 4, Nanking Road. 
McTavish & Lehmann, 1, The Bund (near the Shanghai Club), 

and 1, North Soochow Road (near Garden Bridge). 
Shanghai Dispensary (Chinese), M524, Foochow Road (nearly 

opposite Police Station). 
Voelkel & Schroeder, 37, Nanking Road (near Brewer's). 

Plates, films, chemicals, and every variety of photo apparatus, 
British, American, French, can be obtained from these firms. 

Chemists and Druggists 

All the above-named firms, with Watson & Co., Nanking 

Stores for the Sale of Native, Japanese, and 
Indian Curios 


Hung Chong, iib, Nanking Road. 

Cheong Shing, 21, Nanking Road. 

Luen Wo, 41, Nanking Road. 

Wo Shing, 201, Kiangse Road. 

Native Stores 


Chin Tsiang, 420, Nanking Road. 

Laou Kai Fook, corner of Kiukiang and Honan Roads. 

Chai Luen & Co., C436, Honan Road. 

Hung Chong, iib, Nanking Road. 

Luen Wo, 41, Nanking Road. 


Kuhn & Komor, 2, Nanking Road. 
Nippon Emporium, 38A, Nanking Road. 

Also several shops in Broadway between the Settlement and 
Hongkew Creek. These are cheaper, but do not keep such 
high-class goods. 


For Indian Curios — Chotirmall, 253, Broadway. 

Teerathdas, K8, Boone Road. 

For Chinese Curios generally, brasses, porcelain, inlaid work, 
cloisonne bamboo, lacquer work, etc., the visitor must keep 
his eyes on the windows of the shops as he traverses the 
settlement. It is useless giving the names of shops which 
have Chinese signs over them only, as few tourists are Chinese 

Try Lee Tai, P374, 375, Nanking Road, and Ah Mow, near 
Louza Police Station ; also shops on Kiangse Road opposite 
Siking Road, and a shop on Szechuen Road between the 
Hongkong and Peking Roads (next Chun Tai). 

The numerous pawnshops may also be tried. 

For brass ware, incense burners, etc., and Chinese curios 
generally, the visitor would do well to proceed along Szechuen 
Road and Rue Montauban (both in a straight line) to the 
Quai de Fosses, which face the wall of the native city. Turn 
to the right up the quai — numerous shops with porcelain, 


Native Stores 

brass ware, etc., will be seen. No. 137, Quai de Fosses, has 
a good selection, also shops at the Rue des Missions and 
Rue de la Porte du Nord. Continue along this latter street 
to the Shantung Road, where something may be picked up in 
shops and on stalls. 

Beautiful models of everything Chinese done in white-wood 
may be bought in the shops of the Ningpo wood-carvers on 
Broadway before you come to the bridge across the Hongkew 
Creek — models of sampans, junks, irrigation machines, 
wheelbarrows, etc., along with cleverly done groups from 
Chinese life, such as people eating, opium smoking, threshing 
wheat, etc. At these same shops examples of Ningpo inlaid 
woodwork and picture frames may be had. 



Route I 


THE first walk taken by any visitor to Shanghai will 
probably be along the Bund, one of the most inter- 
esting, famous, and handsome thoroughfares in the world. 
Forty years ago " there was no footpath on the farther side, 
no trees, no lawns, and it was less than half its present width ; 
and at high tides the water came up almost to the walls of the 
compounds by the Canton Road and by Siemssen & Co.'s " 
{Peking Road). There was no Public Garden, and " the fore- 
shore, when the tide went down, was all mud and rubbish, 
except where it was used by builders to store their material." 

Successive Municipal Councils have made it the splendid 
promenade that it is, and have fought against all attempts of 
the shipping interest to construct wharves for shipping. They 
have maintained and improved it as the great lung and 
promenade of Shanghai. 

Start at the Garden Bridge. Until 1856-7 people had to 
be ferried across the creek. A bridge was built, but tolls 
had to be paid, a thing " hateful to the Shanghai public." 
The company that owned the ferry or toll right refused to 
be bought out, until a drastic remedy was applied — the 

Garden Bridge 

Council built a wooden bridge alongside the Company's bridge. 
This brought the Company to its senses, and the bridge 
has been free since 1873. A new one is needed, and is one 
of the schemes for the improvement of Shanghai that must 
be speedily undertaken. 

It is worth while standing for a time on this bridge, viewing 
the enormous traffic ; thousands of, vehicles pass in a day. 
Note the skill of the Chinese sculler's in navigating their 
heavy-laden cargo and passenger boats through the oblique 
arches of the bridge. Note also the enormous variety of 
boats : Chinese post-boats are frequently to be seen, propelled 
swiftly by a man seated in the stern, who works a paddle with 
his foot, and steers by another under his arm. At low tide 
the churning of the " chow-chow water," due to the confluence 
of the Whangpoo River and Soochow Creek, can be seen. 
The river is reputed to be 100 feet deep here, and the skill 
of Shanghai pilots in bringing large steamers round the right- 
angled bend of Pootung Point will be justly admired. 

The view from the bridge, with the handsome German Consu- 
late on the left and the Gardens on the right, is very good. The 
greenhouses of the Public Gardens occupy the corner between 
the Bund and the Soochow Road — they are always well stocked 
with plants. At the corner, outside the greenhouses, is the 
monument to the gallant Augustus Raymond Margary, who was 
sent by H.B.M. Government to open up a trade route across 
south-west China, and who was murdered in Yunnan on 
February 21st, 1875. The monument is a very graceful work, 
and was erected by public subscription. Across the road 
are the Public Gardens, much too small, but invaluable 
to the Settlement. 

All the flowers in season are found in the beds. The 
lawns are a resort for infant Shanghai. On this account it 
is useless for any adult to go to hear the band at 5 p.m. There 
is a handsome band-stand. The Town Band discourses music 
in the summer evenings, at 9 p.m. during July and August, 
when the residents assemble to hear the music and enjoy the 
cool breeze that blows from the sea. 

The ground on which the Gardens lie was originally called 

Public Gardens 

" the Consular Flats " : it was new land formed by the 
accumulation of mud from the river round the wreck of a 
small vessel which sank, near the site of the present band- 
stand. In the history of the Recreation Fund we read that 
" the ground which now forms the Garden is an accretion 
to the Beach Ground of the original Consular Lots, and 
consequently, by the 5th Article of the Land Regulations of 
1854, was ceded for public use." In 1862 the Recreation 
Fund Trustees voted Tls. 10,000 to the laying out of the 
Gardens. In 1864 H.B.M. Foreign Office agreed to the land 
being made a garden, with the following reservations — that it 
should revert to H.M. Government if it ever ceased to be 
used as a public garden. In 1866 the Council made a grant, 
and filled it in with mud taken from the Yangkingpang 
Creek; 011 August 8th, 1868, the gardens, now the property 
of the Council, were handed over to a committee of manage- 
ment. They are now under the control of the Municipal 
Superintendent of Parks and Gardens. The cost, up to 1881, 
was Tls. 29,060,37. 

Opposite the Gardens is the British Consulate-General. 
The grounds cover 43 mow of land and are very beautiful, 
worthy of the central site they occupy and of the prominent 
place Britain has occupied in the opening up of China. The 
Peking Road was the original boundary of the Settlement, and 
the site of the Consulate belonged to the Li family. Accord- 
ing to Maclellan, there was a battery in the neighbourhood, 
and Government (Chinese) docks on the site of the Lyceum 

Mr. R. W. Little, in his account of the Shanghai Jubilee, 
says (on the authority of Lang) that the land here was very 
low and reedy, that two forts that stood where the British 
Consulate now stands were called Lootzeching, or " City 
of Reeds.'' Sir Rutherford Alcock acquired the site in 1848. 
Entering by the gates, we find a broad drive flanked by 
two lawns ; such stretches of green grass are always rare in 
the Far East. 

The Consulate buildings stretch across the west side of 
the compound : there are residences for ten officials, and the 


British Consulate 




■ ' V 



' -^H S3 ^M§ 



house, which was built 
in 1882, is on the ex- 
treme right. The busi- 
ness premises of the 
Consul-General are in 
the large buildings fac- 
ing the right lawn ; they 
are in the Classic style 
of architecture, and were 
opened for use in 1873. 
They occupy the site of 
the first Consulate, built 
in 1852, which was de- 
stroyed by fire on De- 
cember 23rd, 1870, 
most of the records 

The Police Court is 
on the right after enter- 
ing ; the shipping offices 
are farther along the 
passage ; upstairs are the 
consular and land offices. 
The British Supreme 
Court is at. the rear of 
the building, facing 
Yuen-ming-yuen Road. 
The elevation is very 
handsome. It was built 
in 1869. (For particu- 
lars, see under "Govern- 
ment of Shanghai.") 
The office of the 
Board of Works has an 
entrance from the Yuen- 
ming-yuen Road. This 
Board dates back to 

The Bund 

Sir Christopher Wren, who war made Surveyor of Works to 
the King. To the left of the drive is the Vice-Consul's house. 
On the lawn just in front of the Consulate-General is a stone 
slab that tells us just where we are geographically ; the in- 
scription on it is as follows: "This stone is in latitude 
31 14' 42" N. ; longitude 121 29' 12" E. Stone laid April 
1873 by Walter Medhurst, Consul." 

Note the two stones on the front of the building, detailing 
date of erection, etc. Before quitting the grounds, the large 
granite cross with its quaint wording is worthy of notice; it is 
to Wm. de Morgan (died 1862) and R. Burn Anderson, 
of Fane's Horse (died i860). 

Leaving the Consulate, the Masonic Hall is on the right. 
The foundation stone was laid on July 3rd, 1865. The build- 
ing is in the Renaissance style, freely adapted to the needs 
of the climate ; it is entered by a handsome double flight 
of steps. It is the headquarters of the powerful and numerous 
masonic body of Shanghai ; there are club and lodge rooms, 
library and billiard rooms, a bar, and a fine hall with organ, 
which is in great demand for public functions. At the corner 
of the Gardens on the opposite side of the road is a granite 
monument, in memory of the officers of the " Ever- Victorious 
Army " who were killed in action or died of wounds whilst 
serving against the Taiping rebels in the province of Kiangsu, 
a.d. 1862-4. Their names are given. 

We are now on the Bund proper. There is an asphalted 
path by the river, a stretch of beautiful grass, a footpath, and 
then the busy thoroughfare, on which carriages, Chinese wheel- 
barrows, jinrickshaws, passengers of all races, and bamboo 
coolies, present a picturesque and lively picture. 

The Bund is always interesting. Strangers are usually 
struck by the fact that they see " so few foreigners,'' even 
on this main thoroughfare, compared with Chinese. It is to 
be remembered, however, that foreigners, according to their 
numbers in Shanghai, cannot be more than one in seventy of 
those we meet, even if every foreigner were on the streets at 
the same time. The plastered buildings are in the Classic 
style; many of them are architecturally very fine. They 


litis Memorial 

look much more suitable to a sub-tropical climate than the 
dull red-brick erections that are unfortunately becoming 
the rule. 

On the grass by the Gardens is the litis monument. This 
was unveiled November 21st, 1898. An inscription in German 
tells us that it is to commemorate the heroic death of the 
crew of the gunboat litis, which was wrecked on the coast of 

| r~&~^ ~ V^^S^eHBGI 


"t Ban mL 


Iltis Memorial 

Shangtung, in a typhoon August 23rd, 1896, seventy-seven 
men perishing. It is in the form of a broken mast, a well- 
conceived piece of workmanship. 

It is not possible to name all the business houses (hongs) 
on the Bund ; but the Jardine Matheson hong, at the corner 
of the Peking Road, must be noticed. The site probably cost 
about $500 at the founding of the Settlement ; now, probably 
a million would hardly buy it. It was built in 185 1. 

Jardine's, with Dent's and Fearon's, are, as far as I know, 


Sir Harry Papkes 

the only original firms that survive. Jardine's succeeded the 
old Canton house of Magniac & Co. about 1830. Their 
hong name of Ewo is that of the wealthy Houqua, of Canton, 
a great Chinese merchant in the old factory days, who died 
worth Tls. 52,000,000. 

Opposite the Nanking Road is a monument erected to the 

Sir Harry Parkes's Monument 

memory of the great Sir Harry Parkes, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Japan, 
1865-82; to China, 1882-5; aged fifty-seven. This monument 
was erected "in 1890 by the foreign merchants in China in 
memory of his great services." The figure is over life-size. 
. The view from the footpath across the river is spoiled by 
four unsightly opium hulks, in which the drug is bonded — . 


Custom House 

the Yuen-fah, the Ariel, the Corea, and the Wellington. The 
first and last were built as opium hulks. The Ariel was an 
American clipper, which sailed from Shanghai and was dis- 
masted off the Saddles. These hulks were at first anchored 
at Woosung, and were moved up to Shanghai during the 
Taiping rebellion, as places of refuge, if necessary, for foreign 
women and children. 

The Daily News offices are a fine pile of buildings ; alsc« 
those of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank. These are very good 





r5 ■ ■ W, 

■imm am «£p 


m " -a* pat?! ;<g 

Custom House 

specimens of the classic plaster buildings. The new Russo- 
Chinese Bank, opened in 1902, is in the Italian style, with 
emblematic figures over the doors. The Chinese have mis- 
understood these figures, taking them for the "foreign man's 
josses." " It is all that a bank should be — massiveness and 
beauty blended" (Mitchell). 

The new Custom House next attracts attention. It was 
built in 1893, in the place of the old Chinese building, which 
was formerly a temple. " It is in the Tudor style of archi- 
tecture, of red brick with facings of green Ningpo stone, and 


Hongkong and Shanghai Bank 

has high-pitched roofs covered with red French tiles. The 
buildings have a frontage on the Bund of 135 feet, and on 
the Hankow Road of 155 feet. In the centre of the main 
building, a clock tower, supplied with a four-faced clock, 
by Pott of Leeds, striking the Westminster chimes, rises to a 
height of no feet, and divides the structure into two wings. 
The elevation is a very handsome one. There is accommoda- 
tion for all- departments. The Post Office is in the court at 

Hongkong and Shanghai Bank 

the rear. When this clock was first set going, there happened 
to be few fires in Shanghai for some three months. The 
Chinese attributed our immunity to the fact that the chimes 
deceived the fire-god. Hearing bells sounding every quarter 
of an hour, he took the chimes for the fire-bell, and concluded 
that Shanghai was having fires enough. This is a specimen of 
the intelligence the Chinese attribute to their gods ! 

Opposite is the Customs receiving shed, for examining goods. 
Outside it is the board on which the arrivals and departures 
of steamers are posted. Other buildings are the Hongkong 

Shanghai Club 

and Shanghai Bank, the Chartered Bank ; the book store of 
Kelly & Walsh; the Telegraph Company, slightly past the 
Foochow Road; the new offices of the China Merchants 
Company. These will attract most attention till we reach 
the Shanghai Club, the renowned centre of so much of the 
life of the Settlement, social and business ; the one club in 
Shanghai ranking with the best at home. There are all the 
appointments of a first-class club — two large dining-rooms 

Shanghai Club 

and private ones> two billiard-rooms, card-rooms, library of 
16,364 books, bar, oyster bar, reading-room, kitchen on the top 
storey fitted with the latest gas cooking-apparatus. There are 
twelve residential rooms. The building, has no architectural 
pretensions— it has been called " carpenteresque," whatever 
that may be; but it is substantial and comfortable, its only 
drawback being that it is too small for the thousand members. 
It is managed by a committee and staff of four Europeans, 
secretary, assistant chief and assistant house-stewards. The 
present building was erected in 1864 (for further particulars, 

Yang-king-pang- Creek 

see under " Clubs "). Beyond the Club are a few other hongs, 
and then the boundary of the old British Settlement, the 
Yang-king-pang Creek — not exactly a beautiful waterway, but 
so useful for Chinese traffic and the conveyance of garbage, 
that it has resisted all proposals to arch it over and make of it 
a broad road out into the country. 

A bridge leads over the creek into the French Settlement. 

Route II 


THIS is the old British Settlement, which extended 
originally only to the Peking Road, but now to the 
river on the east, the Thibet Road west, the Yang-king- 
pang south, and the Soochow Creek on the north. 
After the Bund, it will be the first part of Shanghai the visitor 
will explore, and it is full of interest. A good rule to avoid 
getting lost is to remember that the roads at right angles to the 
Bund are named after Chinese cities — Soochow, Peking, 
Nanking, Kiukiang, Hankow, Foochow, and Canton ; the 
roads parallel with the Bund are named after Chinese pro- 
vinces — Szechuen, Kiangse, Honan, Shantung, etc. The 
names of the roads are at every corner ; the traveller therefore 
can always find the Bund. Note also that the jinrickshaw fare 
from any point to another in this district is 5 cents. 

Roughly speaking, the lower part between the Bund and 
the Kiangse Road is foreign ; the rest, to the Thibet Road, 
almost wholly Chinese. 

Nanking Road and District South of it 

Foreign buildings occupy both sides of the Nanking Road 
as far as Kiangse Road corner. Many of the best stores, 
foreign and Chinese, are situated here. Narrowness is a 
serious drawback. 

The winding course of this part of the road is due to the 
fact that it was first made on the side of a crooked creek. 

Nanking 1 Road 

Its original name was Park Lane. Almost all the day this 
road is crowded with traffic ; foot-passengers, coolies, silk- 
clad merchants, foreigners of all nations, barrows, jinrick- 
shaws, and carriages make it a unique study. 

Notice No. 8, the head-quarters of the Marine Engineers. 

Near the Kiangse Road crossing is No. 44, an old foreign 
building : this is the Bowling Alley, and is all that remains 
of the grand-stand of Shanghai's first Racecourse (q.v.). 

Native Store, Nanking Road 

Chinese shops now occupy the whole road. Good photographs 
may be had all along, for there can be no questioning the 
picturesqueness of the Chinese shop-front, with its hanging 
signs, globular and octagonal lamps, often adorned with red 
tassels, and its carving. The gold-merchant's shop opposite 
Kiangse Road is a fine example. Note the tea-shops as 
examples of Chinese work ; the upper storey has carved and 
gilded woodwork of scenes from Chinese history. Note the 
large white square Chinese hongs with enormous characters 
on them. They are provision and medicine stores and pawn- 


Nanking 1 Road 

shops, and are easily recognisable. Good curios may be 
bought in them. There are stores of silk, satin, embroideries, 
grass cloth, etc. Very pretty things may be had cheaply in 
the Chinese stores. 

In the afternoon after 4 p.m. a ceaseless string of carriages 
runs out to the Bubbling Well Road. The crossings are worth 
noticing, guarded by Sikh policemen. Note the Chinese 
barrow and jinrickshaw men making a dash to get across. 

Nanking Road 

(The nearest way to the Cathedral is along the Kiangse 
Road to the left.) 

Those who wish to have a peep at a Chinese Temple with 
the minimum of trouble might look at No. P. 167, about half- 
way up on the right-hand side of the road. This is the 
Hwong Miao, a Buddhist temple ; the chief idol is Kwanyin, 
the goddess of Mercy ; in the entrance passage are shrines to 
Midoo and Waydoo, the former facing the entrance; to the 
right is an enclosure with images on the three sides of it, 
seventeen in the centre and twenty-three on each side. 

Town Hall 

At No. P. 1.60 is the Paw Aye Dong, a charitable institute for 
supplying coffins to the poor, almost the most acceptable form 
of charity to the Chinese. No Chinaman who is getting old 
is happy until he has his coffin all ready. It is a frequent 
present from children to aged parents. 

There are two very prominent public buildings on this road ; 
on the left between the Kwangse and Yunnan Roads is the 
new Town Hall and Market. This block of buildings, built 

Town Hall, Nanking Road 

in 1896, covers an area of 43,000 square feet. The principal 
elevation of the Drill Hall is in red brick, with Ningpo stone 
dressings, and its heavy gables give it a very dignified 
appearance. Up the handsome staircase is a large hall, 
154 feet by 80 feet; it has a solid concrete floor, and heavy 
wooden roof principals. Its prime purpose is for drill by 
the volunteers ; all other uses to which it is put, such as balls, 
are incidental. The Town Band plays here in the winter. 
Adjoining is a spacious and well-fitted gymnasium. The 
quarters of the Volunteer Club are here. 

1 S 

Louza Police Station 

Underneath the Drill Hall is a foreign market. The Chinese 
market is on the south side at the back. 

Across the road, up a concrete drive, is the Louza Police 
Station. Louza means " old barrier " ; it is so named from a 
barrier in the old days across the Soochow Creek, at the rear 
of the station. It was moved i| miles higher up the creek 
to the Sinza, or New Barrier. " A paved way, called 
the Shaloo, used to lead from this site to the native city " 

Louza Police Station 
Prisoners in Cages and wearing the Cangue 

The Louza Police Station is a bold and well-proportioned 
building, with pointed arches and a central tower ; the 
quadrangle is neatly kept. Permission to see the prisoners 
in their iron exercise cages may usually be obtained from the 
inspector on duty. 

For those interested in things Chinese, the following 
institutions are easily accessible from this point : the Dai 
Waung Miao, on Sinza Road, and a small but very old temple 
on the Amoy Road. At R. 594 on the Yunnan Road is 


Defence Creek 

the Zung Che Dong, a native charitable institution for pro- 
viding medicine and thick winter clothing for the poor. 

(The British gaol, half of' which is let to the Council for 
Chinese prisoners, is on the Amoy Road, and may be visited 
from this point.) 

Now turn to the left along Thibet Road; the creek 
is called Defence Creek, and was made to protect the 
Settlement in Taiping times. At the corner of the 





BP3 ' ^ 


,WM ] E$v if 


Jr *th^B 

Honan Road 

Hankow Road is the McTyere Home and Boarding School 
for the education of the higher classes of Chinese girls, the 
first of its kind in China ; it is named after a bishop of the 
Southern Methodist Church (U.S.A.). The Moore Memorial 
Church in the same compound is on the Yunnan Road ; it was 
built in 1887 by Mr. K. P. Moore, of Kansas City (U.S.A.). 

On this road the Chinese pastime of airing the bird (Tsung 
tiau) may be seen. The Chinese derive great pleasure from 
standing and holding a cage with a bird in it for hours 
together : it is the Chinese idea of exercise. 

17 2 

Fooehow Road 

At the end of Thibet Road there is a bridge across the 
creek; this leads to the old cemetery at Pah-sin-jao. It is 
well laid but, and old enough to have acquired the peaceful 
beauty of a home cemetery, The road leading to it is squalid 
in the extreme, but still worth seeing : it is real Chinese. Naval 

Chinese Actor 

and military men as well as civilians of all nations lie here at 
rest together. 

We may now return to the Bund by any of the roads to the 
left. This whole quarter is thoroughly Chinese, and Chinese 
life, good and bad, may be seen. 

The principal thoroughfare is the Foochow Road, which 


Foochow Road 

is known all over the Empire ; it is the Piccadilly of China. 
Here are the large and fashionable opium shops, which 
are open to inspection ; they are the large square buildings 
next to the Shantung Road crossing. Here also are the 
Cantonese tea houses, with wonderful carved fronts ; and 

Chinese Actress 

the fashionable restaurants, where a first-class Chinese dinner 
may be sampled. 

The section from the Honan Road westward is full of 
interest. Here too are the Chinese theatres — the Ti Si in 
Fokien Road, the Tsung Si in the Canton Road, the Dan 
Quay and the San Tsing in the Hupeh Road. Visitors 


Fooehow Road 

ought to get a Chinese to go with them to visit the theatres. 
The hotels will oblige with guides. If it is only for the mag- 
nificent silk costumes of the actors, a visit is worth' the trouble. 
The acting is done in. a naive style: a treasure-cart will be 
represented by a man walking across the stage holding a 
paper, with "I am a cart " written on it. A robber climbs 
a wall by jumping over a chair. We must not however be 
hard on the Chinese, for after all, in Shakespere's time acting 
depended on the same devices. Refreshments are supplied 
to the " stalls " along with hot cloths, in Chinese style, to mop 
your perspiring brow. 

Several roads, and portions of roads, in this district, are 
devoted to particular trades, in which the collector of curios 
on a hurried visit can pick up a variety* of characteristic 
Chinese wares cheaply : in the Fooehow Road, Chinese orna- 
ments, Fooehow tea-root figures, etc. ; in the Canton Road 
(above Shantung Road), Chinese boots and shoes of all 
patterns ; in Shantung Road, clothing, pottery, curios, scrolls, 
etc., at street stalls (cheap native pictures, which are often 
amusing and crude attempts at current events, are mostly for 
sale early in the spring) ; in Shanse Road, all kinds of women's 
and children's gear, head-dresses, cheap jewellery, ear-guards, 
purses, etc. ; in Honan Road, fine silks and embroideries ; 
Fokien and Hupeh Roads are devoted to jinrickshaws and 
coffins ; Sungkiang Road, on the Yank-king-pang Creek 
side, has second-hand shops where curios may be picked up ; 
the west of the end of Shantung Road (between Fooehow 
and Hankow Roads) gives itself to the making of blocks for 
printing (the characters " are cut in wood) ', Kiukiang Road 
(above Shantung Road) is the seat of the native post offices. 

Resuming our walk at the upper part of the Foochow 
Road, we notice the Parsee Cemetery on the right between 
the Chekiang and Hupeh Roads ; turning up the busy Shan- 
tung Road, the south end of which is busier and more 
crowded than any road in the Settlement, and more like 
a street in a native city, we see a plain chapel to the left. This. 
is in the compound of the London Missionary Society, the 
first Pfotestant Mission in the Settlement. The celebrated 

London Missionary Society 

Dr. Medhurst, father of Sir Walter Medhurst, settled here 
in 1843, with Dr. Lockhart, when the compound, double its 
present size, cost $1,080 only. There is a hospital in the 
compound, with an entrance on the street, founded in 1846 by 

Native Doorway, Ningpo Road 

Dr. Lockhart. In 1872 it was transferred to the community 
as the Chinese General Hospital, the Mission retaining its 
right to work among the patients. This was the first medical 
mission in China. Until 1884 this chapel was used by the 
congregation of the Union Church. 

Crossing the Foochow Road, we come to the original ceme- 
tery for foreigners. In the middle of it is a tall wooden 
Structure, which is the Council's fire-alarm station, and a 

Central Police Station 

watchman up in the hut at the top gives the alarm by ringing 
a bell. 

In the Honan Road is the 

Central Police Station 

This was erected in 189 1-4 from the designs of T. W. 
Kingsmill and Brenan Atkinson, as the result of a competition, 
at a cost of Tls. 76,000 ; with land, Tls. 100,000. 





mm " Sifaii 

' -5ifl ■ iV- 1 

Central Police Station 

" The building, erected of red brick in the early Renaissance 
style, is perhaps the most dignified of all the municipal 
buildings " (Mitchell). 

It is the headquarters of the Police Force, with quarters 
for foreign inspectors, constables, Sikhs, and Chinese. Here 
is also the armoury and orderly-room of the Volunteer force. 

On the Honan Road is the new 

Central Fire Station, 
easily recognisable by its motto " We fight the flames." This 

Municipal Offices 

building should be of the greatest interest to visitors and 
residents, not only because it is a model fire station, but 
because it is the only building in the world where a number 
of men reside to voluntarily perform such arduous tasks as 
the extinguishing of fires and the possible saving of lives. 
The building, completed in March, 1903, is of four stories, 
in the Renaissance style. On the ground floor space is pro- 
vided for the usual equipment of a first-class fire station. 
The upper floors are arranged as bachelors' quarters for 
several firemen. There are poles by which the firemen can 
descend rapidly to the basement. 

The New Health Offices and Municipal Laboratory 

are in the Honan Road, and were built at the same time as 
the last block, to which they are contiguous, at a cost of 
Tls. 30,000. On the ground floor are the vaccine station and 
general stores. On the first floor is the laboratory, fitted up 
with the latest appliances for bacteriological research ; and 
adjoining is the " Municipal Menagerie " of calves, goats, 
rabbits, monkeys, birds, and mice for the scientific work of 
the department. These are well worth a visit. The Health 
Officer has a fine suite of rooms over all. 

At the back of the above, on the Kiangse Road, are the 

Municipal Offices 

These were once the business premises of Messrs. E. Barnet 
& Co. The building was erected by Mr. Strachan, the first 
architect by profession to arrive in Shanghai, about the year 
1849. " He introduced a marked style of his own, a version 
of the so-called Greek at that period fashionable in England." 
The present building is a good specimen of his style. " Under 
his instruction the art of building made considerable progress, 
and a school of workmen, mostly Ningpo men, was developed 
and did excellent work" (Kingsmill). 

The Secretary and Taxing Staff occupy the main build- 
ing ; the Engineering Staff occupies two blocks of plastered 


Trinity Cathedral 

buildings on the Hankow Road. The Council has a large hall 
up the footpath to the left of the main building, where it 
meets. Several interesting maps of Shanghai, and other 
pictures, are on the walls. 

Next to the Municipal Offices, occupying the whole compound 
between the Kiukiang and Hankow Roads, is Holy Trinity 
Church, the Cathedral Church of the Anglican Bishop of Mid- 
China : it is the most magnificent church in the East, and, with 

Holy Trinity Church 
The Cathedral Church of the Anglican Bishop of Mid-China 

its great green sward around it, the handsome Carlowitz and 
other modern buildings facing it, presents a most imposing 
appearance. In the earliest days of the Settlement there was 
a consular chapel somewhere in the Museum Road, which 
was then included in the British consular compound. A 
church was built on the present site of the cathedral between 
1840 and 1850 : a waterspout is said to have burst over it in a 
thunderstorm on June 24th, 1850, and the roof fell in ; it was 
repaired and opened again in 185 1. Maclellan says that it 


Union Church 

had become so dilapidated by 1862 that the rain came in 
through chinks : it was taken down in that year and a tem- 
porary place of worship erected in the compound. In 1864 
a new church was determined on. Sir Gilbert Scott furnished 
the plans, which were modified to meet the needs of the 
climate. So magnificent and costly a structure was a severe 
drain even in so wealthy a community as Shanghai was at that 
time. The foundation stone was laid May 24th, 1866 ; it was 
opened August 1st, 1869 ; the new organ dates from 1883 ; 
and the foundation stone of the spire was laid in 1901. " The 
style is early thirteenth-century Gothic, with nave, aisles, tran- 
septs, chancel, and two chapels for organ and vestry. Its length 
is 152 feet, and its width 58 feet 6 inches ; its height, 54 feet." 
There is an open arcade surrounding the aisles, carried on 
granite shafts. The Deanery is at the west side of the church, 
and a new parish room, serving as Sunday-school room, has 
just been erected in a style in keeping with the church. 

We can now find our way by any of the roads to the Bund 
(Hankow Road, Kiukiang Road). We notice how the whole 
district is becoming covered with lofty buildings four stories 
high, making these narrow streets extremely gloomy. 

Central Division— North of Nanking Road 

The portion of the Central Division north of the Nanking 
Road has not so many subjects of interest as the larger portion 
on the south side. It contains the Public Gardens and the 
splendid compound of the British Consulate-General, already 
described. Proceeding up the Soochow Road, we find the 
Union Church just past the British Consulate boundary. 
This church is, as the name implies, formed by members 
of all denominations, who wisely agree to sink all minor 
differences. The church originated in 1845 with the Rev. 
Dr. Medhurst, of the London Missionary Society, who held 
a service for foreigners in the chapel in the compound in 
the Shantung Road for many years, until the unsuitableness 
of that neighbourhood for a foreign church, and the require- 
ment of the chapel for purely Chinese purposes, compelled 
the congregation to find a home in the present building. 


Lyceum Theatre 

The present church was built in 1884 by Mr. Dowdall, 
in the Early English style, having an open timbered roof, 
and tower with octagonal spire, which is 108 feet high to the 
top of the vane. The church was enlarged in 1901. The 
Hall, at the corner of the Yuen-ming-yuen Road, with 
lecture-hall, class-rooms, etc., was opened in December, 1899. 

Opposite the Union Church is the Boat House, the headi 
quarters of the Rowing Club. The new premises have every 

Union Church 

convenience for the members of this popular club. Just above 
Union Church, on the right, are the Chinese Gardens, for the 
use of Chinese residents. Farther up the road, slightly down 
the Kiangse Road, is the water tower of the Water Works, 
from which pressure is obtained to supply the Settlement ; it 
is 100 feet high. 

In the Museum Road stands the Lyceum Theatre (see 
" Amateur Dramatic Society "), recently refurnished and 
improved with new front. In the same road is the Museum 
(see " China Branch, Royal Asiatic Society ") ; if only to see 


British Post Office 

the birds of China the tourist should visit it. Close to the 
Museum, in the street near the Italian Consulate, is the only 
spot where a foreigner has been executed in Shanghai by 

The British Post Office is at the corner of the Museum and 
Peking Roads. The crossing of Szechuen and Peking Roads 
is one of the busiest in the Settlement ; five minutes standing 
there gives a good idea of the enormous street traffic of 
Shanghai, and at this corner some of the oldest hongs or 
business houses may be seen. 

At 1 6, Peking Road, is the Jewish Synagogue; at No. iS 
is the American Presbyterian Mission Press, which prints a 
vast mass of literature for the Chinese every year. 

Beyond the Honan Road, westwards, this part of the 
Settlement is wholly Chinese : the upper part of Peking Road 
is the Petticoat Lane of Shanghai. At No. V. 747, Peking 
Road, is the Zen Sung Aye, a temple built by members of the 
Silk Guild for monks ; and in Amoy Road, V. 439, is the very 
small but ancient temple, the Dai Waung Miao. The only 
other foreign buildings are the British Gaol in Amoy Road, 
half of which is let to the Municipal Council for Chinese 
prisoners, where they may be seen engaged in mat-making. 
The Gas Works are in Thibet Road ; the supply of gas is in 
the hands of the flourishing Gas Company, which makes a 
a bold stand against the electric light, supplying the older 
illuminant at a cheaper rate than it is supplied in many English 

2 7 

Route III 


Bubbling Well Road 

THIS is a continuation of the Nanking Road or Maloo.-; 
it commences at Loong-fei Bridge, which crosses the 
Defence Creek. The Creek received this name in Taiping 
times, when it was the limit of the western defences of the 

The George Dallas stables on the left are No. r, Bubbling 
Well Road. The drive up the Nanking Road need not be 
described here, as it is done in another section (which see). 

A short history of this, the premier road of Shanghai, will 
be of interest. It shows how largely indebted the present 
generation is to the public spirit of private individuals in the 
past. A reference to the account of the Race Club in this 
volume shows that the " Shanghai Riding Course " occupied the 
ground at the top of the present Nanking Road. " No pro- 
vision was made for driving, as in those days Shanghai could 
not boast of any wheeled conveyances other than the native 
barrow.' 7 

"In 1862," says the "History of the Recreation Fund," 
" owing to the influx of the Chinese seeking refuge from the 
Taiping rebels, land in the so-called English Settlement in- 
creased so much in value, that the trustees of the Shanghai 
Riding Course decided on constructing a road 40 feet in 
width, through the centre of the Course, and selling the 
20 feet remaining as frontages." Carriages were beginning to 
appear in the Settlement about this time, but there were no 
roads on which to drive. According to this resolution, it will 


Bubbling -Well Road 

be seen that the road made clean through the old Riding 
Course to the Bubbling Well was originally intended to be a 
driving road only. That it would become a great residential 
road did not apparently enter the heads of these fathers of the 
Settlement. The names of these trustees deserve to be held 

Sikh Mounted Trooper 

in everlasting remembrance. They are Ed. Cunningham, 
N. C. R. Macduff, Wm. Thorburn, T. C. Beale. The frontages 
sold for Tls. 100,036,10, which became, of course, the property 
of the shareholders of the Riding Course. With this money 
the land necessary for making the road to the Bubbling Well 
was purchased, and the road made for, what appears to-day, 
the ridiculously low sum of Tls. 13,524,28. It is interesting to 


Recreation Ground 

note that Tls. 970,20 were paid for removing the ever-present 
coffins in the way of the new road ; the bridges cost Tls. 2,825, 
and the road itself Tls. 4,600 to make. The actual cost of 
the land was Tls. 3,483,58 only. 

Only subscribers were 1 permitted to drive on it free. 
Gates were erected at the two large bridges to keep off non- 
subscribers. It was completed in October, 1863, and its length 
to the Well is two miles. It was, however, found impossible 
to collect sufficient subscribers to keep the road in repair, 
so negotiations were entered into and concluded with the 
Municipal Council in May, 1866. The shareholders made a 
free gift of this splendid road to the public, on condition that 
the Council kept it in repair and abolished the tolls, the 
history telling us that " the payment of tolls seems peculiarly 
distasteful to the Shanghai public, probably from the habit of 
not carrying money on the person." Few communities have 
so splendid a free gift as Shanghai in this road. 

Now that we have seen the making of the road, we com- 
mence our drive. To the left, next to George Dallas's stables, 
is the Recreation Ground. The outer racecourse belongs to 
the Race Club, the inner to the Recreation Fund Trustees, 
along with the whole of the interior. A carriage may be 
driven into the grounds as far as the pavilion which is visible 
from the entrance gate. 

The building to the left is the swimming bath, a proprietary 
institution, the shares of which have gone up to somewhere 
about 130 per cent, premium ;' the gate next to it is the 
entrance to the Shanghai Cricket Ground ; the pavilion to the 
right belongs to the popular Golf Club, which has to be con- 
tent with a nine-hole course on this level ground instead of 
having natural links. These cannot be obtained in the country 
round Shanghai, as golf cannot be played in paddy fields. 

The next pavilion to. the right of the Golf Club is that of the 
Cricket Club, a new one in which are dressing- and bath-rooms 
for the players. Some account of this ground will be found 
in the brief history of the Recreation Fund (which see). 

This ground was the first laid out when the whole Recreation 
Ground was acquired, along with a baseball ground then next 


Race Club 

to it. The flower-beds in front of these pavilions are well kept. 
Walking round to the right, one sees the pavilion of the 
Recreation Club, which combines cricket, football, and tennis. 
The large area between the grounds of these clubs and the 
racecourse is allotted free to the innumerable tennis., cricket, 
and football clubs of the Settlement. Continuing our round, 
we come to the ground and small pavilion of the German 
Tennis Club. Looking across this space south towards the race- 
track, a pailow (widow's monument) will be observed. These 

, i 

tM ■f"T UlliLLL 



Race Club 

memorials are erected by the Chinese Government to widows 
who have not married again. Continuing, we pass the ground 
of the Polo Club, and arrive again in front of the Cricket Club 

Leaving the Recreation Ground, we regain the road. The 
spacious premises of the Horse Bazaar Company are seen on 
the right. A number of poorly built foreign houses follow, suc- 
ceeded by the solidly comfortable Mayfair and Ewo Terraces. 
Over the way is the home of the Race Club (which see). This 
has been receiving additions ever since it was built, about 1861. 

3 1 

Country Club 

Its well-swept gravelled spaces, its air of neatness, its broken 
outlines, present a handsome appearance. The clock tower 
is one of the two public clocks which Shanghai boasts. There 
is accommodation for a large number of ponies belonging to 
members. Adjoining the Race Club is Mohawk Road, 
which leads across to the French, the newly formed Great 
Western and Wei-hai-wei Roads, which run parallel to the 
Bubbling Well Road to the Siccawei Road. The Jewish 

Countky Club 

Cemetery lies at the corner of Mohawk Road, and the 
inscription on one of the gate-posts is : " Jewish Cemetery. 
Presented to the Jewish congregation of Shanghai by David 
Sassoon, Esq. a.m. 5622, a.c. r862." Next to the Cemetery 
is the Dallas Horse Repository. 

On the right-hand side of the main road is the residence 
of the celebrated Sheng Kung Pao, who is said to have 
four hundred persons altogether on the premises, family 
and retainers — a true Oriental family warren. The next 
noteworthy buildings are the Country Club (which see) 


Chang Su Ho's Gardens 

on the left, and the Shanghai Taotai's foreign residence and 
offices, along with the Chinese Bureau of Foreign Affairs on 
the right. The Country Club has increased in importance as 
a social rendezvous since the Shanghai Club has become 
so much a business centre. The view of the building from 
the road is good, but the front is on the south side, where 
the gardens, with lawns and ornamental water, are of great 
beauty. The Taotai's residence is a large plastered building 
of no architectural pretensions. 

The lane to the left, where the Bubbling Well Road bends 
slightly, is Love Lane ; it is prettily shaded with trees, and 
leads to Yates Road. From the Carter Road, which is next 
passed on the right (leading to Sinza Road and the Robison 
Road), the Bubbling Well Road will bear comparison with any 
similar residential road in the West. Villas completely shaded 
with well-grown trees, and often of excellent architecture in 
various styles, line both sides of the road. The only drawback 
is that abundance of foliage means abundance of mosquitoes 
in summer. 

The popularity of the road is evinced by the string of 
carriages that fill it of an afternoon. Foreigners and Chinese 
are equally in evidence. The visitor has no better opportunity 
of seeing the dress of Chinese women than here. Celestial 
beauties drive along this road, arrayed in splendid silks and 
satins, got up in the height of Chinese fashion. 

A charming feature of the road is the mixture of the old 
and new, foreign and Chinese buildings — reed-built cottages and 
farms are side by side with the foreign villas. 

Chang Su Ho's gardens are at the end of an opening on the 
left of the road, just past Yates Road; the hall is one of the 
handsomest buildings in Shanghai, and the gardens are good. 
Displays of fireworks (Chinese) are given in the summer. 
There are some altogether original effects, quite unlike those 
of Western fireworks. Refreshments may be obtained. The 
gardens are about twelve years old. Under the present 
management many new attractions have been added, such as 
a water chute and cycle track. 

From the new Gordon Road (leading into Sinza Road and 

33 3 

Yu Yuen Gardens 

thence to the Well) we reach the Cross Road, where we must 
not fail to see the Yu Yuen Gardens (admission, 10 cents). 

Those who have never seen Chinese gardens ought not to miss 
this chance : rockwork, well stocked with flowers in summer, 
lily ponds, zig-zag bridges, alcoves, covered ways, quaint 
hexagonal and circular door and gateways, with curved roof 
pavilions, tell us we are in China. The most is made of a 
small space. The photographer and water-colour artist will 

■^^T^^BB^hi ^fWLLE 

Chang Su Ho's Gardens 

find abundant subjects in these gardens, as Mr. Brocklebank's 
lovely pictures prove. There is a large two-storied refreshment- 
room, and casual visitors can have tea in Chinese or foreign 
style. There is no need to be afraid of the food supplied; 
Chinese sweets and confectionery can be sampled. There is a 
very small menagerie in the gardens. 

There is another way, round to the right, to the Jessfield 
Road, but it is best to continue to the left along the Bubbling 
Well Road, past the new Cemetery, which has been opened 
about six years. The Chapel, behind which is the Crematorium, 


The Bubbling Well 

serves all religious denominations. It is best to alight at the 
Bubbling Well. 

Inside a square stone enclosure is a spring of muddy water 
charged with carbonic acid gas. This is the well-known 
Bubbling Well. The scene about the well is a very pleasant 
one, with the well-planted roads and well-kept walks, the 
old temple, the Chinese shops and dwellings. St. George's 
Farm, buried in foliage, supplies excellent teas.^ The old 

Chang Su Ho's Gardens, Arcadia Hall 

temple, very famous in the district, is worth a visit. The 
great doors are open only at festivals, but entrance is easily 
effected by a small and mean door at the right — that is, the 
side nearest Shanghai. This leads into the outbuildings. 
Bearing to the left all the time after entrance, we pass through 
the chief halls. The name of the Temple is Zung Au Aye. 
and a Chinese scholar informs me that it dates from the Han 
Dynasty — not, of course, the present building, but one on 
the site. The Han Dynasty ended in a.d. 951. The first gods 
visible are the three brothers, " the three rulers of Heaven, 


Bubbling- Well Temple 

Earth, and Water " ; the first rules heaven, the second earth, 
and the third the seas, lakes, rivers, and canals. Their birth- 
days are on the 1 5th of the first, seventh, and tenth months, 
August is the chief time for worship. The name of the 
central one is Wang Lo Yah. They wear scarlet robes. 
Through a passage, at the end of which is a very old dusty 

Yu Yuen Gakdens 

bell, and across a brick court, is another building, with the 
plaster figure of a mandarin, arrayed in ordinary Chinese 
dress. I have been unable to ascertain who he is, but it looks 
like a case of the apotheosis of some meritorious official. On 
the table in front of him is a tall red tablet with the inscrip- 
tion : "The lord 10,000 times 10,000 times 10,000 years." 
Passing through the door to the left, we come to the temple 


Bubbling Well Temple 

to Midoo, the " Metreya Buddha." He is also called the 
" Me-me Buddha " and the " Coming Buddha," and is the 
Messiah of the Buddhist Faith. He sits tailor fashion, and 
is always represented as very fat. " In his hand is a bag ; his 
broad, laughing face welcomes the worshipper At the present 
time Sakyamuni rules the Church : his successor will be 
Metreya, and at that time the earth, 'with its five evils 
mingled,' will be purified." There are two hideous painted 

Two of the "Four Brothers" in Bubbling Well Temple 

figures at each side of Midoo, the four heavenly kings, or 
"the four diamonds"; "they were four brothers, who were 
killed in battle and made guardians of the doorway in Tar- 
tarus," The first has a sword, "which, if brandished, would 
cause a black wind to spring up, and in the wind 10,000 
spears, which would pierce the bodies of men and turn them 
to dust ; after the wind there would be a fire like 10,000 golden 
serpents flying round." The next on the right " has a guitar ; 
when he touches the strings, fire and wind issue forth." The 
first on the left " has a bag, and in the bag a little animal like 


Siceawei Road 

a white rat ; turn it loose, and it will be like a white elephant 
with two wings flying against the enemy." The last one " has 
an umbrella in his hand which can shade the universe ; turn 
it, and there would be earthquakes ; open it, and heaven would 
be a chaos, earth darkness, and the sun and moon without 
light" (Du Bose). 

A door to the right of Midoo leads to the court of the Tah 
Yung Pau Dien, the main temple building. 

Buddha occupies the central shrine, seated on a conventional 
square lotus ; below him a smaller image. Around the walls 
are the companions of Buddha, over life-size, in gilded wood. 
These are very well done-'and newly gilt. Starting at the left, 
the local names of the ten are : Pah-ha, with a globe in his 
hand ; Quah Tan, with a staff; Nos. 4, 5, and 6 all sit together; 
No. 6 is Koe Yun, who has no arms, and sits in contemplation, 
like Buddha ; No. 7 is Li Kon Lan — he has top boots, and at 
his feet is a tiger ; No. 8 is Long Ho, who has a lion in his 
hand ; No. 9 is Loo Hon. 

Those on the right-hand side of the image are similar : one 
has his hand raised, another sleeps, another is cross-legged, 
and another holds a child in his arms. 

We now leave the Temple, and pass the end of the Siceawei 
Road, which was formed by a body of shareholders for riding 
and driving before 1865. (Shanghai may be reached down 
this road, either by the first turn to the left, crossing to the 
French Road, or by the second to the left, which is the head 
of the French Road itself.) We turn to the left after 
passing St. George's Farm, and are now on the Jessfield 
Road, a drive of a mile through a pleasant country, now 
beginning to be built on, and plentifully covered with grave- 
mounds, clumps of tall grass, and villages. We soon reach the 
Brenan Road. This leads out into the country, round by the 
Rubicon and Hung-jao Roads to Siceawei, forming three 
sides of a square. The distance from the Race Club round 
these roads is about seventeen miles, and pedestrians and 
riders may do it easily ; for cyclists it is quite passable ; for 
carriages a pair of horses or ponies should be used. Nothing 
can give a visitor a better idea of the country round Shanghai 


St. John's College 

than an excursion round these roads. The Soochow Creek 
is touched about two miles up the Brenan Road. 

The road to the right of the Brenan Road is the Robison 
Road, leading back to Carter Road. The ground about the 
empty cotton mill was the camp of the British (Indian) 
troops from the time of the Boxer outbreak in 1900 to January, 
1903. We continue through the Jessfield village, past the mill, 
and reach a branch of the road : to the left is Mr. E. Jenner 
Hoggs's beautiful domain of "Unkaza"; to the right St. John's 
College, the centre of the mission work of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of America, which commenced its labours 
in Shanghai in 1837, under Bishop Boone. Admission to 
inspect the College may be obtained from the principal any 
day but Saturday and Sunday. 

The grounds will strike the eye of the visitor as singularly 
beautiful ; the well-grown trees surrounding trim lawns, the 
chapel and substantial buildings, suggest that the founders 
of St. John's College must have had a more than usually broad 
and generous conception of mission work. 

St. John's was founded in 1878. The brick building to the 
right is the new science hall, thoroughly furnished with 
apparatus. The main building has a quadrangle, with 
assembly hall, classrooms, bedrooms, dining-room, etc. 
The buildings to the left are the residences of the bishop, 
principal, and teachers. There is a large playing-field behind 
the College. 

The return to Shanghai must be made by the same route, 
unless the pony can stand a return by the Robison Road, 
a new occupation road made by the Council, much used 
by riding men. 


Route IV 


THE Northern District is that part of the Settlement 
that lies between the Soochow and Hongkew creeks. 
It is usually considered to contain no places of interest, a 
view of it which is entirely wrong, as I hope to show. 

German Consulate and Church 

Foot- or Post-boat in Foreground 

There are large numbers of foreign residences in it. North 
Szechuen Road, Quinsan Road, Range Road (so named from 
the fact that until 1897 the Volunteers' rifle range was there), 
and others are foreign. This Northern District is characteristic 


German Consulate 

of Shanghai, where more than in any other Treaty Port 
foreigners and natives are intermingled residentially. In 
Shanghai there is no locality sacred to foreigners only. This 
has its advantages and its disadvantages, the former pre- 
dominating. It is good for trade ; it saves the comparatively 
few foreigners from becoming a clique, as they do when they 
live in a small enclave by themselves. At any rate, it certainly 
adds to the interest and picturesqueness of life in Shanghai, 



5^1 £r 

It - : 

1 1 JSt ■ * v " 


1. M 


Street Scene 

where Chinese habits may often be studied almost as well as in 
a native city. 

I propose to give first a few notes of Chinese life in 
Hongkew. Tourists who are photographers will be glad to 
know where to find characteristic subjects. 

Chinese Life in Hongkew 

The Hongkew end of the Garden Bridge, from 7 to 9 a.m., 
gives pictures enough : there are ducks and geese being carried 
to market on bamboos, on large flat basket trays, huge crates 


Soochow Creek 

full of fowls, barrows of unsavoury-looking fish. In fact, coolies 
laden with every kind of produce can be photographed here. 

The Soochow Creek (North Side) 

As far as the Chapoo Road and Szechuen Road bridges this 
is a rich field. Here is the seat of the vegetable and the 
centre of the rod and scrap-iron trades. In the apparently 
ramshackle hongs an immense business is done. Be there 

The Soochow Creek 

early in the morning, and see vegetables and fruits being landed 
from boats. In the summer there are picturesque heaps of 
melons, persimmons, egg-plants, chihlis, etc., and in winter 
cabbages of all kinds, kobe, carrots, etc. The landing, and 
weighing on native steelyards, packings and carrying away on 
bamboos, with the gesticulating groups of men, all make good 
pictures. Look out for the raising of huge balks of timber 
from the creek to the road by means of bamboo poles and 
ropes. The Chinese coolie "gets there" in his own way. 
Give him ropes and bamboo poles and he can move anything. 


Seward Road 

Above the Honan Road Bridge 

Go there between 4 and 5 p.m. to see the " trains " start 
for Soochow and other places : a " train " is a string of boats 
towed by a launch. This scene should not be missed. For a 
confused scene of boats, houses, pontoons, shanties, boatmen, 
coolies, and passengers, rich and poor, with " big box, little 
box, band-box, and bundle," hawkers, cooks, and loafers, the 
scene is unrivalled.' Unfortunately the noise' cannot be 
photographed. The creek is crammed with boats, and how 
the train is to get out is a problem equalled only by that one, 
how it ever got in ! Note the Chinese passenger-boats — a 
hundred coolies on the roof, as close as sardines. They are 
carried to Soochow for 25 cents each, including food. Query : 
How is the new railway to compete ? 

A tiny cabin to yourself costs $1. Get pictures of cake- 
sellers, of silk-clad gentlemen buying three cakes to last them 
the fifteen hours' run, of boatmen, hawkers, the picturesque 
backs of Chinese houses on the creek, etc., etc. 

Seward Road 

For the first mile this is entirely Chinese, and it is always 
crowded. The fact that 50 per cent, of the whole population 
of China is engaged in the carrying trade must account for it. 
In the absence of horses and railways, men must be the burden 
bearers. Note the wooden erection over a dye shop near the 
Hongkew Creek, and native cloth suspended from the staging 
in long streamers. Calendaring cloth may be seen in a shop 
at the far end of the road ; it is done by seesawing a heavy 
round grindstone (with segment cut off) on the cloth : a man 
standing on the stone supplies the energy. Note rice stores, 
cook-shops (always the filthiest), sam-shu (spirit) stores, and 
pawnshops, which the coolies make convenient store-houses for 
their winter clothes during the summer. When one of these 
pawnshops catches fire the insect world is indeed the poorer. 

Hongkew Creek Side 

This is a rich field, all the way up Fearon Road from 
Broadway. A good deal of washing is done. Note that clothes 


Hongkew Creek 

and rice and vegetables are all washed in the filthy creek. 
It is the fact that the Chinaman eats only hot food that has 
undergone boiling or frying that saves the population from 
being decimated by epidemics. 

On the higher reaches of the creek, from Scott Road 
northward, the visitor may see genuine beggar villages, if he 

Dye House, Seward Road 
Shows Bamboo Staging for drying Cloth 

wishes. These people are from north of the Yangtsze, which 
is a poor region. Their huts are made of anything handy — 
mud, reeds, brickbats, old planks, coats, sacking, and enamelled 
iron advertisements of somebody's invaluable soap. 

There is a large supply of babies, dogs (much fleabitten and 
mangy), urchins (clothed in winter, naked in summer). Their 


Hongkew Creek 

boats are in the last stage of consumption ; they often just 
hang together (literally with rope), but whole families spend 
a cheerful life in them. On the small deck all domestic 
operations may be witnessed ; the Chinese love of flowers 
comes out in pots of golden lilies, adorning the indescribable 
squalor. Children and fowls are tethered on deck, to prevent 

Hongkew Market 

an immersion. A duck may be seen floating astern : one would 
think it could swim where it liked, but it cannot ; that duck is 
tied to the boat by a string. If the visitor is adventurous, he 
may continue up the creek, where he will find China sanitary 
and unsanitary, coffins, beggars, water-buffaloes, washermen, 
gardeners, huts, farms, and scoundrels, washed and unwashed. 

The Hongkew Market 
should not be missed on any account for lively scenes of 
Chinese marketing, between 6 and 9 a.m. 


The Pan Tuck Aye 

Places of Interest in the Northern District 
East of North Szechuen Road 

The General Hospital, on the Soochow Creek between the 
Chapoo Road and Szeehuen Road bridges, was founded in 1864. 
Since then it has been much enlarged, and*Ts gradually being 
rebuilt. The nursing is admirably done by the Sisters, and it 
receives a grant of Tls. 3,000 per year from the Council. 
There is accommodation for first- and second-class patients, 
and free beds for the destitute. The number of these beds 
is to be largely increased. 

Two Chinese religious institutions are very conveniently 
situated for a visit, being within ten minutes of the Garden 
Bridge — the Pan Tuck Aye, a Buddhist nunnery, and the 
Kwang Zang Ee Yuen, a native hospital with temple attached. 
They are both in the Haining Road, which is the fifth turning 
to the right along the North Szechuen Road. 

The Pan Tuck Aye is the first building to the left down 
Haining Road. The door on the road is a shabby one, of 
black painted wood. Knock for admission, and the nun who 
opens the door will permit you to wander round as you please. 

Crossing a small yard, you enter a hall with an image 
of the corpulent Midoo, who prospers men and is the 
coming Buddha. At the back of his shrine is one to Waydoo, 
a disciple of Buddha, with his sceptre. Go through the great 
door behind Waydoo and cross an open court, which has 
houses of the nuns on each side of it ; the carved woodwork on 
the verandahs of these houses is good. At the other side of the 
court is the temple building, the interior of which is surprisingly 
rich and clean — well kept and well worth a visit. Good scrolls 
and inscriptions cover the walls. The roof is of good open 
woodwork, and the central shrine is to Sieh Kyah Mayi Nue 
Vah, the Buddha of the three ages — past, present, and future, 
the small figures to the left and right of the central one 
representing the past and future. Around the walls are the 
eighteen Lohans ; " they were distinguished members of the 
Indian Church, and passing through several degrees they 
attained to the state of perfect saints." This is the only temple 


The Kwang Zan Ee Yuen 

in which the actual correct number of eighteen is represented. 
Sometimes they are doubled. At Hangchow there are five 
hundred ; here there are nine on each side, in cases of 
varnish and gold with glass doors. To the right of the 
central shrine against the back wall of the building is 
a shrine with glass doors ; inside are three figures of 
gilded wood, very handsomely carved. They are the gods 
of the western heavens. Amida is the central one, the local 
name being O-mi-doo. He " represents the craving of a human 
soul for a life beyond, full of light and happiness." 

On the left side of the central shrine is another similar 
glass-fronted shrine, to the thousand-handed Kwanyin, the 
goddess of mercy, who "listens to the prayers of the unhappy,'' 
helps the sailor, succours women, and she-alone of the gods 
is especially loved by women and children. The last time I 
visited this nunnery two mandarins' wives, resplendent in silks 
and loaded with pearls, had come in to worship her. 

Next to the Pan Tuck Aye is the Kwang Zan Ee Yuen. 
This is a hospital for the sick poor, and is maintained by the 
Cantonese Guilds ; it is a case of purely native philanthropy, 
and is therefore interesting. Entering by a good modern iron 
gate, the watchman will permit us to pass into a hexagonal 
yard. This leads into an entrance hall with table and chairs ; 
memorial tablets or slabs, with the names of benefactors 
inscribed, line the walls. This and the whole enclosure is 
scrupulously clean. No one need be afraid of contagion here ; 
one wonders how it is kept so clean. A very tasteful open 
court with piazzas and rows of Kiukiang garden seats, on 
which are pots with dwarf orange trees, leads into what we may 
call the Governor's hall, with its black-wood table and chairs. 
The walls are covered with good scrolls and one or two 
anatomical pictures of the human body, proving that the 
Cantonese governors are not against western learning. 

There is no idol in the central position, but a scroll with a 
picture of the heavenly mandarin. Pass through the curtained 
doorway at the back of this building, cross a small court, and 
enter the temple of the god of medicine — in Shanghai called 
Wan Doo Siensang, the king of medicine. 


Temple of the God of Medicine 

"There are four of these gods, or perhaps one with four 
titles." " In one day he ate seventy poisons ; his body was 
transparent, so that their effect could be seen." Hwat'u is 
another name of the medicine god ; he was born in the second 
century of our era ; being imprisoned by the emperor, " gave 
his book of prescriptions to his gaoler's wife, who kindled the 
fire with it, to the irreparable loss of the world." . No wonder 
medicine has made slow progress in China. There is an alley 

Group of Women 

way on the right (east) side of the main buildings where the 
hospital is situated. 

A series of small courts contain three rooms each, and in 
each room are two patients ; the rooms are passably clean, but 
the patients look forlorn, wrapped up in their cotton quilts. 

There is a convenient cemetery next door. The Chinese 
genius makes the hospital complete. 

In Quinsan Road we find the Anglo-Chinese College. On 
the right, in a beautiful compound, are the headquarters of the 
Southern Methodist Board of Foreign Missions (U.S.A.), which 


Victoria Nursing- Home 

commenced work in Shanghai in 1849. The College on the 
left was built in 1889, and is the means of educating about two 
hundred young Chinese. This College, in such close proximity 
to the centre of the Settlement, affords a splendid opportunity 
for all interested in education in China to inspect the work ; 
the course of study is thorough and broad. 

At the corner of Boone and Chapoo Roads is the 

Public School 

It is supported by the Council, and moderate fees have to 
be paid. A good education is given, but those who want a 
higher education cannot obtain it in Shanghai. It is a pleasing, 
one-storied building, surrounded by asphalted playgrounds. 
In Range Road is the 

Victoria Nursing Home 

This useful institution, having a very pleasant outlook, was 
erected by the inhabitants of Shanghai to commemorate the 
Diamond Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Victoria. The 
building, which cost over Tls. 32,000, was opened and handed 
over to the Municipal Council on March 27th, 1901, and has 
the distinction of being the first and only institution of its kind 
in the East. Accommodation is provided for twenty-three 
patients ; the staff are nurses from English hospitals, with 
probationers from Shanghai. The object of the Home is to 
provide skilled nursing for the sick. The total cost of the 
Home to the community in 1901, after deducting fees re- 
ceived from patients, was about Tls. 3,600. The rooms are 
light, airy, and beautifully fitted. 

Returning down the Woosung Road, the premises of the 
China Inland Mission are reached. They are on the right 
after passing the end of Quinsan Road. A plain but useful 
building of no architectural pretensions whatever forms the 
headquarters of the Mission. There are suites of rooms 
for missionaries down from the interior. The great central 
lawn is very well kept. When we remember that seven to 
eight hundred missionaries are connected with this society, 

49 4 

Hongkew Market 

we can realise the vastness of the business transacted in this 
building. The story of the founding of this Mission by Mr. 
Hudson Taylor is known to all. 

Not far from the Mission, a little way down the Boone 

Road, is the 

Hongkew Market, 

which is so popular that in 1901 fees accruing from it yielded 
a sum of Tls. 15,971 to the coffers of the municipality. It is 
one of the sights of Shanghai, and ought to be visited early 
in the morning. Opposite it is the back entrance to the 
important Hongkew Police Station ; it fronts Minghong Road, 
and was erected in 1878-9 at a cost of Tls. 32,000. In the 
compound is the Eastern Fire Alarm Tower, 85 feet high. 

The Thomas Hanbury Home 
is a little lower down on the Boone Road, and was founded by 
Mr. Thomas Hanbury for the education of Eurasian children, 
both boys and girls. There are boarders and day pupils, and 
a good sound education is given, along with practical training. 
This institution deserves much more generous support than it 
receives. It is a large brick building at the corner of Nanzing 
and Boone Roads. 

At 21, Nanzing Road, is the Church of the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus, with schools. The last public institution worthy of note 
in this part of the Settlement is 

St. Luke's Hospital, 

belonging to the American Protestant Episcopal Church 
Mission, where a great work is done for the Chinese. It was 
founded in 1869. There are a hundred beds in the men's 
wards ; the women's hospital has fifty beds. 

Those who have time may go and see some places. of interest 
in the remoter parts of this division. There is the Municipal 
Isolation Hospital for Chinese in Scott Road (top of Woosung 
Road), with accommodation for 150 patients, and a separate 
block for out-patients. The building, erected in 1900 is in 
Chinese style, and behind it is a two-storied building. The 
whole cost Tls. 21,000. 


St. Luke's Hospital 

Going along either Scott Road or Yuhang Road, we find a 
number of municipal institutions. The Concrete Ware Yard, 
at the corner of Scott and Fearon Roads, is full of interest. 
In 1890 the Council commenced manufacturing concrete 
drain-pipes, etc., and since then the whole of the drains and 
sewers in Shanghai have been laid with pipes of local pro- 
duction. At times some interesting tests are made, such as 
rolling a ten-ton steam roller over a 3-foot tube with only a 
thin layer of earth above. At all times the manufacture of 
pipes and gulleys, in wooden moulds, may be witnessed. In 
1900 over 66,000 pieces were made. Near at hand, at the 
corner of Yuhang Road, is the Municipal Electric Lighting 
Station. This was acquired by the Council in 1893 for 
Tls. 60,765. Improvements made since have brought up the 
cost to Tls. 215,000. Next to this are the 

Municipal Slaughterhouses, 

built where formerly a switchback railway stood. In 1901 
there were here slaughtered 17,317 oxen, 29,269 sheep, 3,944 
calves, 1,896 pigs. The meat is inspected and stamped with 
the words " Killed, Municipal Slaughterhouse," with the date. 
Meat inferior, but good for food, is stamped " Stallman." No 
meat is allowed to be sold from any shop unless it bears the 
municipal stamp. 

Return to the Garden Bridge by Fearon Road and Broadway. 


Route V 


RIGHT in the heart of the Foreign Settlement there are 
three places of interest, within five minutes' walk of each 
other, that should not be missed : the Temple of the Queen of 
Heaven, the Shanse Bankers' Guild House, the Mixed Court. 
First, the Temple of the Queen of Heaven, Tien Hon Kong. 
It is the large building on the North Honan Road, next to 
the bridge over the Soochow Creek, on the Hongkew side. 
This is a very popular temple, crowded at all festivals, and 
usually much frequented. Behind are the official lodgings 
for travelling Government officials. Li Hung Chang used to 
stay here. 

A wide gate gives entrance to an untidy court, much used by 
loafers. The facade of the main building is very good, done 
in diamond-shaped stonework, with two handsomely carved 
medallions on each side. At each side of the door is a stone 
lion, and these are in front of all official buildings as guards. " It 
is believed that at night they are living lions, and are seen 
roaming about." 

The -two usual red flagstaffs are opposite the door, and 
a broad piazza leads into the main open court. Overhead 
is the theatre, in which, on festivals, crowds watch the plays. 
There is a gallery at each side of the court for " the quality " ; 
the common-folk cover the open space below. All kinds of 
tradesmen occupy this entrance, and an obliging dentist will 
draw teeth or puncture you with wires to let out rheumatism. 

None can fail to be struck by the picturesqueness of this 


Temple of the Queen of Heaven 

central court. The tout ensemble is excellent, and makes 
splendid photographs. At each side two two-storied buildings 
like kiosks will be noted, with plastered second stories. The 
gods in them show that the Chinese mind has been " feeling 
after " the idea of omniscience. In the right-hand kiosk is the 
image of Ching Tsiang Ching, who can hear anything said 
within a thousand li of Shanghai (a li = one-third of a mile). His 
vis-a-vis in the other kiosk is Liu Tsiang Ching, who sees any- 
thing done within the same distance. An eye is carved in his 
forehead, and is called " the thousand li eye." These two 
deities are the assistants of the Queen of Heaven, who occupies 
the place of honour in the main building, which is entered 
through great doors. Dr. Du Bose gives the following account 
of her : " She was in girlhood a Miss Ling, whose prophecies 
were sure to be fulfilled. Once, when her four brothers were 
at sea, she fell into a trance, and the loud lamentations of her 
parents, who thought her dead, awakened her. She said she 
had seen her brothers at sea in a typhoon, and soon after the 
youngest brother returned and reported the drowning of the 
other three. He saidithat during the storm a lady appeared in 
mid-heaven, and by means of a rope dragged the ship into 
safety. Miss Ling said it was she who had hastened to the 
rescue of her brothers, but while in the act of saving them was 
awakened by the cries of her parents. Her father was soon 
after drowned at sea, and Miss Ling, in her grief, threw herself 
into the foam. In after-years a mandarin travelling to Corea 
was saved from a typhoon, an angel lamp guiding his boat to 
an island where was already a temple to Miss Ling. Hence 
she is the guardian of sailors, and her temple is near the busy 
shipping of the creek." Her image is almost covered with 
heavy yellow silk curtains, and the atmosphere of this temple 
is generally thick with incense smoke. All the implements of 
worship are much worn, the candlesticks are blackened with 
smoke, and red candles of the tallow tree are ever burning. 

The side altar to the left is to Kwanyin (the goddess of 
mercy). On the right is a shrine to the " Three Pure Ones " : 
the centre one is the " Ancient Original," the one on the right 
the " Spiritual Precious," the other " Laotsze." These remain 


Shanse Bankers' Guild House 

quietly in heaven, leaving the gods to direct the affairs of the 

From this temple a walk of a couple of hundred yards 
brings us to the corner of a narrow lane, the Tsepoo Road. 
There is a very neat and pretty Cantonese garden up this 
lane, with blue-and-gold medallions opposite the red-and- 
gold painted gate, which makes an excellent photograph. 
Inside are ornamental rock-work, flowers, dwarf trees, and a 
tasteful, clean hall, with chairs, scrolls, altar, and two good life- 

Shanse Bankers' Guild House 

sized pewter-ware storks. It is an oasis of cleanliness in the 
surrounding squalor. 

Some little distance beyond, at the intersection of the 
Boone Road and North Honan Road, is the most sumptuous 
Chinese building in Shanghai. This ought to be visited, if 
every other is missed. It is the Shanse Bankers' Guild House, 
the Dzah Tsong Way Quay, built in 1892, at a cost of at 
least Tls. 150,000. Like all Chinese buildings, it makes no show 
externally, but its long grey boundary wall cannot be mistaken. 


Temple of Kwangti 

There is no entrance by the front doors, which are open only 
twice a year, in spring and autumn, at the anniversary of the 
birth and death of Kwangti (the god of war). 

Go along the drain side to the back of the building, turn 
through a bamboo fence door, and knock at the back door of 
the building ; permission to view it will be granted by the 
watchman. The whole enclosure contains three courts and 
four main buildings, and on entering there is a small court 
with two octagonal gates, on the right. These typical Chinese 
doorways make a good photograph. 

Next is the reception-room, with tables, chairs, scrolls, altar, 
and opium couches. Everything is spotlessly clean and good ; 
but the visitor will be struck with the absence of comfort — 
a stone floor, no fire, no hangings, all bare and hard. There 
is no such thing as comfort in China. 

The next hall is dedicated appropriately enough to the 
god of wealth, locally known as Say Zung. Dr. Du Bose says 
that Yuen Tan, who rides a black tiger and hurls a pearl that 
bursts like a bomb, is the true god of wealth, but that he 
has been supplanted by the other, who was one of five 
brothers, and whose birthday is on the 5th day of the first 
moon, and has two useful ministers, " Invite Riches " and 
" Gain Market.'' The shrine is of red varnish picked out 
with gold ; in front of him is a lion-legged red table, which has 
three rows of well-executed battle scenes in relief, carved 
on the front of it. Around the walls are twelve pewter figures 
of gods, made at Ningpo. I have not seen idols made in this 
material in any other temple. There are two fine life-sized 
pewter storks, emblems of immortality. 

We now come to the first open court, with galleries at each 
side of it to enable spectators to witness plays on the 
-theatrical stage at the other end. The balconies are finely 
carved and are painted red and gold. 

An empty transverse passage, dividing the whole enclosure 
into two parts, is passed, and another reception-room like 
the first, when we find ourselves in the temple of Kwangti 
(the god of war), under a wonderfully carved and picturesque 
canopy of red lacquer and gold. There is a fine black-wood 


The Pa Sien 

lamp with red tassels, and immense candlesticks 7 feet 
high, of Ningpo pewter, in front of him. At each side are 
rows of handsome halberds with red shafts and pewter heads, 
all different, for use on state occasions for processions. They 
are evidently conventionalised battle-axes. 

In front of the rows of halberds, on each side, are two 
groups of figures, four in each, very well done. These are 
the eight immortals, the famous Pa Sien, "the legendary 
beings of the Taoist sect who attained immortality." They 
are : — 

(1) Han Chung-li, "full set with a bunch of hair on each 
side of his head " ; the patriarch of the genii revealed to him 
the secret of immortality. 

(2) Tih Kwali. " A wild beast ate his body while his spirit 
was wandering round at night, and he found a lame beggar's 
body, which he appropriated." 

(3) Chang Kwoolao, a necromancer, "a contemporary of 
the Emperor Yao and Shun." 

(4) Han Siangtz, nephew of the scholar Han Yu, who left 
home as a child and studied magical arts. On returning, he 
dashed on the floor a glass of wine, which turned into a 

(5) Lan Tsai-ho carried a flower basket and wandered shoe- 
less through the world, singing verses denunciatory of the 
transitoriness of things. 

(6) Tsao Kwo-kiu, " said to be the son of a general of Tsao 
Piu, who died in a.d. 999." Brother of Empress Tsao Hou ; 
wears a court head-dress. 

(7) Ho Sien Koo, daughter of Ho Tai of Tseng-cheng, 
Canton. " She refused food, ate mother-of-pearl, and became 

(8) Lon Tung Ping, born a.d. 755, learnt alchemy from 
Chung Li, " overcame ten temptations, and is armed with a 
magic sword to rid the world of evils." 

Beyond this hall of Kwangti is another open court, with 
a theatre. There is a curious spiral dome on the stage with 
a mirror in the roof, in which you see yourself upside-down. 

Outside this theatre is the entrance court, the front of which 


Railway Station 

is a magnificent specimen of Chinese art and ought not to 
be missed. The doorway is wonderful, with remarkably fine 
and elaborate carving over it. The stone lozenge work of 
the walls is in perfect condition. 

At the Bankers' Guild, just described, we are not far 
from the 

Mixed Court 

A description of this is given in the account of the govern- 
ment of Shanghai. This is the court in which Chinese must 
be sued. A native magistrate sits, assisted by a foreign 
assessor, as Shanghai is not a foreign possession, but only 
leased to foreigners. Chinese are amenable to their own law, 
which is, however, tempered by the foreign assessor, and no 
torture is allowed. 

To find the court, go up the Boone Road till you reach 
the Chekiang Road, and the court is held in a large bare 
hall, open to the public. Sittings commence about 10 a.m. ; 
the accused kneels on the floor before the magistrate. The 
chief punishments inflicted are bambooing, imprisonment, 
and deportation, and the infliction of the punishment of 
bambooing may be witnessed in the afternoon, about 4 p.m., 
by those who wish to see it. There is nothing else of par- 
ticular interest in this part of the North District. 

The Country 

The railway station is off the extreme end of the North 
Honan Road, and is a neat structure. Even if there is no 
intention of going to Woosung (which see), it is worth a visit, 
for it is worked exclusively by Chinese. 

A walk to the new Rifle Range may be taken by con- 
tinuing along the roadway in a line with the North Honan 

The large straw-roofed buildings on the left after passing 
the station approach- are native ice-houses. Immense shallow 
ponds supply the ice in the cold weather, and men wade out 
into the ponds, break the ice, rake it in, however thin, and 
store it in ice-houses. 


Ice Houses 

These ice-houses are mentioned in that most interesting 
book "The Nemesis in China," which contains an account of 
the conquest of Shanghai. Visiting the famous tea-houses in 
the native city, the writer says : " Among the many remarkable 
objects of Shanghai were the enormous ice-houses, both 
within and without the city, in which ice is stored for public 
use. This was a real luxury to our soldiers and sailors when 
the place was taken." These soldiers and sailors knew nothing 
about germs, yet enjoyed the ice and lived. This ice is viewed 
with suspicion by the sanitary authorities to-day. 

The road continues for about a mile to the Rifle' Butts 
station through pleasant country. Cross the line at the station 
and go right on to the range, which is an exceedingly fine 
one. There are stationary and movable targets ; there is a 
telephone connecting markers and shooters. 

Between the range and the railway is the new Recreation 
Ground, which is being laid out as a park (see excursion to 
Woosung). There is now a new road back to the Settlement 
from the Rifle Range to Range Road and North Szechuen 

There are two small temples in this piece of country which 
are worth visiting. We should be accompanied by a guide, 
as neither of them is perhaps easy to find. Both are best 
reached from the end of Woosung Road, at the bottom of 
Range Road. 

The Sing Sing Aye, a small and mean-looking Cantonese 
temple, looks externally like a farm ; it is close to a new 
black-brick foreign house, which has a large porcelain stork on 
the roof. Internally this joss-house is very clean, and all the 
appointments are of excellent workmanship. There is a good 
gilt shrine to Buddha, and smaller ones to Kwanyin, and 
Dien Zaung Waung, who does " bottomside. pidgin " (the god 
of the infernal regions), as I was told by the Chinaman who 
was with me. 

The other joss-house is a Buddhist nunnery, the Sing 
Zing Aye ; and close to the high bamboo fence surrounding 
it is a boundary stone marked " W. S. W. B. C. Lot 188." 
Admission may be obtained by knocking at the black wooden 


The Sing Zing Aye 

doors. The whole interior is a complete surprise, owing to 
the richness and elegance of its carvings and images. A gilt 
Buddha sits on the sacred lotus, on a carved gilt stand; at 
his left foot is Waydoo, the Apollo of the gods, protector 
of the law of Buddha ; at his right foot is Kwangti (the god 
of war), with his battle-axe. To the left is a shrine to Dien 
Zaung Waung, crowned and holding in his hand a sacred 
crystal globe. In a rich Cantonese blackwood case are the 
" Three Pure Ones. There is a very fine gong and beautiful 
hanging lamps. 


Route VI 


THIS is one of the drives that every visitor ought to make. 
It gives a glimpse of the industrial district of the Settle- 
ment, while at the terminus is one of the best views Shanghai 
can afford. For we make no pretence of competing with 

Garden Bridge 

Hongkong, with its magnificent panorama of sea and mountain 
from the Peak. The Point, however, is well worth a visit. 

Starting from the Garden Bridge, we drive along Broadway, 
a reminder that we are in the old American Settlement. 


The American Settlement 

The shops are mainly Chinese and Japanese. Excellent 
cane chairs, deck chairs, occasional tables, etc., are on sale, 
and the cheaper Japanese stores are situated here, where all 
kinds of curios may be bought, often cheaper than in Nagasaki. 
The stores of the great Chinese ships-chandlers and compra- 
deres will be noted here, where everything nautical can be 
purchased, from an anchor to a pot of paint and barrels of 
salt beef. 

The Church of Our Saviour, belonging to the American 
Protestant Episcopal Church Mission, in which services are 
held in English every Sunday, with its square tower, has a very 
home-like appearance. It is the oldest church building in the 

Instead of taking the above-outlined route, the turn to the 
right may be taken along the Whangpoo Road, passing the 
Astor House Hotel. 

The Astor House, occupying the whole of the space at the 
corner of Broadway and Whangpoo Roads, is a conspicuous 
feature of Shanghai life, where the traveller can take his ease 
and find every comfort supplied lavishly enough to satisfy the 
veriest sybarite. Splendidly situated, with a fine view over the 
river, near the Bund, it has progressed continuously since its. 
founding, by Mr. D. C. Jansen in i860, up to its recent 
extension under the energetic company now owning it. 

There are two hundred rooms, all of them outside rooms — 
that is, none of them face the quadrangle inside — hence every 
room has abundant fresh air. They are single and en suite. 
Every bedroom has its own bathroom, with hot and cold 
water available day and night. The dining-room, elegantly 
decorated, is capable of dining three hundred guests at one 
time. There is a comfortable ladies' lounge or drawing- 
room, a reading- and smoke-room. The billiard-room has 
four of Thurston's tables, and there is an American bar. 
The hotel has its own electric plant, supplying the two 
thousand lights that illuminate the building, power being 
generated by four Crossley gas-engines. The hotel also has 
its own ice-making plant, and its own refrigerating chamber 
of thirty tons capacity. 


New portion at rear showing bedroom accommodation 

Astor House Hotel 

Astop House Hotel 

The building is steam-heated in winter, and kept delightfully 
cool in summer by electric fans. Three lifts are at the service 
of visitors, while the amateur photographer can have his plates 
developed and his pictures printed on the premises. There is 
also a barber. 

The Hotel Garden on the opposite side of the road must 
not be forgotten. The view across the river is always interest- 
ing, and in summer the strains of the Town Band, which 
plays at 5 and 9 p.m., can be enjoyed as well as in the 
Public Gardens themselves. Passenger agents (runners) meet 
all steamers ; night porters are in attendance, and refresh- 
ments may be obtained any time day or night. 

The new German Church is next to the Astor House. This 
is a very handsome building with a graceful spire. The chief 
feature of the interior is the oil painting on the altar [Altarschreiri) 
presented by the present Emperor of Germany. The massive 
buildings of the German Consulate are opposite the church, 
the Consulate occupying the most desirable site in Shanghai, 
its front facing the river; it was erected in 1884-5. The 
Consul-General's residence adjoins, and beyond are the 
Consulates-General of the United States and Austro- Hungary. 

The carriage might be left at this point, and the way down any 
one of the side streets to the right might be taken to see the 
fine wharf of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha Co., and the Japanese 
Consulate. The wharf gives a good idea of the varied traffic 
of Shanghai. Coolies swarm like ants, while steamers, cargo- 
boats, and sampans crowd the river. 

Broadway is regained by the side of the Hongkew Creek, 
which is remarkable for its crowd of sampans. The Hong- 
kew Creek is a very busy waterway, up to the left side of 
which (Fearon Road) are the Shanghai Electric Lighting 
Works and the Municipal Slaughterhouse. 

Just over the bridge on the right are the head offices and 
works of the great ship-building and engineering trade of 
Shanghai— Farnham, Boyd & Co., Ltd., shipwrights, engineers, 
and boiler makers. This dock was founded in 1862 by Mr. 
Farnham, and, after absorbing the Shanghai Engineering and 
Dock Co., amalgamated with Boyd & Coy., who owned 


Cotton Mills 

the Pootung and New Docks. This company, with a capital of 
Tls. 5,520,000, has the largest foreign staff — 90 foreigners— of 
any concern in the Settlement. The old dock premises cover 
16 acres, and the dock itself is 400 feet long. Of the others, 
the Tunkadoo dock, opposite the native city, is 380 feet long ; 
the Cosmopolitan dock, one mile below the harbour limits 
■on the Pootung side, is 560 feet long ; and Boyd's new dock, 
450 feet long. If the visitor, by application to the secretary, 
can manage to get permission to view the docks, by all means 
let him do so. They are infinitely creditable to the enterprise 
•of Shanghai. Anything in shipbuilding, from the building of 
a warship to the most difficult feats of repairing, can be done 
by the supremely able staff. Visitors who through ignorance 
have a low opinion of Chinese labour will be astounded at 
the skill shown by the'native workmen in handling complicated 
foreign machinery. 

The Sailors' Home is the only noticeable building until 
Wayside is reached, where the Yangtszepoo Road commences. 

At Wayside are the works of the Aquarius Table Water 

The Yangtszepoo Road is a fine broad thoroughfare, where 
one may see the primeval and the brand-new modern building 
side by side — old China and new China : reed hovels on one side, 
and Cotton Mills equal to the best in Manchester on the other. 

On the right-hand side of this road are the new cotton 
spinning mills of Shanghai. Taking them in order after the 
Paper Mill, they are the Soey Chee Mill (Arnhold Karberg), 
the Laou Kung Mow (Ilbert & Co.), and the Ewo Mill 
(Jardine's). They were all opened in 1897 or thereabouts, 
and each contains, as does the Yah Loong Mill farther on, 
from 40,000 to 60,000 spindles ; altogether there must be over 
300,000 spindles in the ten or twelve cotton mills of Shanghai. 

Owing to unexpected difficulties as to supply and price of 
cotton, as well as to the difficulty of procuring and training 
labour, the mills have not been the financial success antici- 
pated ; but there is no reason to doubt that the future will be 
brighter. As to Chinese labour, interesting statistics were 
given at a meeting of the Engineers' Society in April, 1902, by 

65 5 

Shanghai Waterworks 

Mr. J. Kerfoot, manager Of the. Ewo. Mill. He said "the 
Chinaman was from 40 to 50 per cent, cheaper than white 
labour, but that it took two and a half Chinamen to do the 
work of one European." He " denied the non-success of the 
cotton mills was attributable to the labour; if all the other 
matters were on a par with the workers, the mills would always 
return good dividends. Chinese labour was 10 to 20 per cent, 
cheaper than similar Indian and Japanese work ; and when the 
mills started, the ratio of Chinese to Lancashire labour was 
four to one, now it was two to one .and 30 to 40 per cent, 

Next to the Ewo Mills are the premises of the New Chinese 
Spinning and Weaving Co. ; and then the filter beds, pumping 
stations, and other works of the Shanghai Waterworks Co. 
The curious topsy-turviness of things in China is unaltered by 
even a foreign institution like the waterworks : in the West the 
intake of water would, of course, be above the city ; here 
in Shanghai it is below the city. The reason is that at 
Shanghai the best water is not that which comes down the 
Whangpoo, but that which is forced up by the tide outside from 
the great sweet stream of the Yangtsze-kiang, and Shanghai 
drinks Yangtsze water. It must be remembered, too, that 
in China no offensive sewage flows into the streams. The 
entrance lodge, ivy-covered, presents a handsome appearance. 
The company was formed in 1881, and commenced to supply 
water in 1883. After being pumped from the river, and after 
settling in large reservoirs, the water is filtered by the ordinary 
process of sand filtration. It is then pumped by powerful 
engines to the water-tower, Kiangse Road (capacity, 150,000 
gallons). During a very hot day in summer the consump- 
tion equals 5,500,000 gallons. Permission to view the works 
may be obtained at the offices of the company, 69, Kiangse 

The Yah Loong Mill and Ewo Waste Silk Mill passed, we 
come to the bridge over the Yangtszepoo Creek, before crossing 
which the neat building of the Yangtszepoo Police Station 
may be noticed. It was built in 1890 and is $% miles from 
the Garden Bridge. 


The Point 

If the traveller has time, he would do well to take this oppor- 
tunity of visiting a Chinese temple and see what is commonly 
known as the Red Josshouse (in Chinese, Tien Hon Kong). 

Go up the footpath between the Police Station compound 
and the creek, and the temple is visible all the way and the 
path is good. One bridge has to be crossed before entering 
the temple by the door on the creek side, when the attendant 
priests will show the visitor round. This temple is always 
scrupulously clean and in good condition. In the great hall 
is a fine gilt Buddha, with his companions ; in another, a 
Buddhist hell, where every description of physical torment is 
vividly shown by coloured plaster figures : men being sawn in 
two, boiled, split, pierced, etc., and it becomes obvious, on 
inspection, that if men could be made good by the threat of 
future punishment, the Chinese would have been a model 
nation long ago. There is also another hall full of idols. In 
the courtyard there is painted on the walls a figure of the 
monkey god ; next to it is the furnace for burning waste paper. 
Printed paper is sacred in China, and to pick it up off the 
streets is religiously meritorious. To this is due the freedom 
of Shanghai streets from littered paper. 

Returning to the bridge and rejoining the carriage, the road 
leads past mills and the houses of the Chinese hands — the Dan 
Too Oil Mill and the large mill of the Chinese-owned Cotton 
Cloth Mills. The old mill (the first in Shanghai), containing 
27,000 spindles, was destroyed by fire in 1893, and the present 
one was opened in 1895. 

From this point the drive is very pleasant between rows of 
willows, with paddy and wheat fields and waste ground on 
each side, and a full view of the broad stream of the Whangpoo. 
The Point Hotel is soon reached, where excellent refreshments 
may be obtained ; tiffins and dinners may be ordered before- 
hand. A pleasant time may be spent wandering about the 
grass and among the trees, and watching the traffic on the 
river. The Point should, if possible, be visited slightly before 
high water. Beyond the Point is the splendidly equipped mill 
of the China Flour Mill Co. ; it is furnished with the most 
recent English machinery, and produces every variety of flour, 


Seward Road 

meal, brown meal, groats, etc., and is well worth a visit. The 
road may be continued to Woosung some day. 

Return may be made by the same route, as the Hongkew 
district is poorly provided with roads, or, for the sake of variety, 
the greater part of the way back may be made by the Seward 
Road. Return to the commencement of Yangtszepoo Road ; 
turn to the right at Wayside, past the works of the Aquarius 
Mineral Water Co., bearing to the left just past the works. 
This is the Seward Road, which takes you straight back to the 
Garden Bridge. This road is well worth seeing. Foreign 
houses are few ; for a mile from the Settlement it is almost 
purely Chinese. The cyclist must beware of the leisurely 
Celestial, who has no idea of moving out of the way. 


Route VII 


SLIGHTLY out of the ordinary beat of the tourist and 
unknown to many residents is the district known as 
Sinza. The name means the New Barrier, to distinguish it 
from the Louza or Old Barrier, farther down the creek, the 
name of which is perpetuated in the Police Station in the 
Nanking Road. Both barriers are now swept away. This 
district presents some objects of interest, which ought not to be 
missed, to be found nowhere else in the Settlement, and, 
generally, it is a happy hunting-ground for all in search of 
pictures of Chinese life. It is the district, broadly speaking, 
on the north or right-hand side, when we are at the top of the 
Nanking Road. We may also approach it by going up the 
Peking Road, whither gravitate all the bottles, tobacco, mustard, 
fruit, biscuit, and kerosene oil tins of the foreigners, which, 
according to Mr. Arthur Smith, the house-boys " absorb." 
It may be reached along the Lloyd and Chekiang Roads, from 
the Nanking Road. Chinese temples are fairly numerous, 
a very accessible one being the Zen Sung Aye, No. V. 
747, Peking Road, at the corner of Peking and Kweichow 

Entering by the side door, the usual pair of idols 
faces us, Midoo and Waydoo. Crossing the court to the 
main temple, Buddha is seated on the lotus. To the left and 
right of him are two images of Kwanyin (the queen of heaven). 
She, in this temple, is much visited by women who desire 
a son. Through an oblong court you find two halls, in one of 
which is a most ghastly Buddhist hell, with smoke-grimed 


Buddhist Torturers 

metal figures of demons torturing the damned. On the upper 
shelf are the heavenly yamen runners — that is, the underlings 
of the gods who do their bidding, just as the yamen runners 
on earth are the mandarins' servants. On the lower shelf are 
the tortures — dogs worrying men, men being mashed under a 

In the Soochow Cemetery, Sinza Road 

rice-hammer, tied on a lion's back, hung up by hooks, being 
boiled in oil, being disembowelled, "sawn asunder," being 
swung by the hands, which are tied behind the back, and so 
on through all the gamut of the diabolical Chinese imagina- 
tion. The Chinamen may well fear the "josses." 

Not far along the Sinza Road there is a small lane to 
the right called the Dai Wong Miao Road : in this is a very 


Sinza Road 

popular temple, the Dai Wong Miao. The idol is a little old 
man with a grey beard. In a hall to the right is the thunder 
god, locally called Li Tsu Da Ti, and sometimes, Wen Tai Sz. 
■" His chief temple is in the province of Kwangtung, where a 
woman found an egg more than a foot round and carried 
it home. One day it split with a noise like thunder and 
liberated a child. The townsmen erected a temple to com- 
memorate the prodigy, and the place is called Lui-chou-fu." 

A wonderful procession starts from this temple one day 
at the end of April, and perambulates the district, which is en 
ftte with new lanterns, silk embroideries, flags, drums, and 
cymbals. A feature in the procession is six enormously fat 
men, who are clad in crimson silk flowing robes, and have their 
bodies naked to the waist. They are intended to represent 
Midoo. A wonderful paper dragon 30 feet long is carried 
in the procession. There are one or two other unimportant 
temples near at hand. 

The principal sights to be seen in Sinza are the Chinese 
mortuaries, or cemeteries — the former is the better word. It is 
well known that the one desire of a Chinaman is to be buried 
in his ancestral town or village. If he dies away from home, 
his body must be sent back to his native place ; but it is not 
always convenient to send it at once — his friends may not 
be able to afford it, and it takes some time for his relations 
at home to fix on a lucky site for his grave. The richer he is 
the longer it takes the priest to pitch on one. A poor man is 
soon settled, as nothing is to be got out of him in the way 
of fees. The corpse of a rich man can be kept above ground 
until his estate has been well bled. These and other reasons 
make it possible that the body of a Chinaman who dies in 
a strange place may have to be kept a couple of years, until 
it can be consigned to its final resting-place. Consequently 
some place must be provided for the safe custody of the dead 
belonging to various localities, and as Shanghai has more 
Chinese from other parts of the empire than any other place, 
its mortuaries are the largest and most numerous. 

Sinza is the district to see these extraordinary mortuaries. 
The Cantonese have two, the Nanking, Hoochow, and 


Chinese Mortuaries 

Soochow people each one. Three of them are close together; 
the Nanking mortuary is B. 456, Sinza Road. A near way to 
it from the Settlement is up the' Bubbling Well Road and Park 
Road, then, when Sinza Road is reached, it is a little way 
up on the right. Enter by a. large gate with circular arches, 
and inside will be found arbours, courts, kiosks, garden, 
parlours, guild rooms, tea-rooms, etc.,' ornamented with shrubs, 
good wood carving, and scrolls, all very characteristically 
Chinese. The bodies are stored in locked rooms. 

But the most extraordinary is the Cantonese mortuary ; it is 

Graves in Cantonese Cemetery, Sinza Road 

perhaps the most remarkable sight in Shanghai. It is No. 457, 
Sinza Road, next to the preceding. Entering under a large arch, 
one proceeds along a broad, bricked drive that gives the 
impression of a drive to a foreign residence; then looking 
around the astonished eye sees hundreds and hundreds of 
brick graves, such as are common in the country round 
Shanghai. There they stretch, side by side, in phalanxes and 
regiments, rows on rows of them, covering a space double that 
of the British Consular compound. Each grave has a stone 
with the name of the dead in red letters. Broken coffins are 
scattered about, from which the bones have been taken to be 


Sooehow Mortuary 

" potted " and sent to Canton. One realises the hold that the 
dead have on the living in China. A panoramic photograph 
of this should be taken, if you are the possessor of a panoramic 
camera. There is one thing here that could be seen nowhere 
but in China — a bridge across a broad ditch, of which the 
central pier is a pile of coffins. 

The bricked drive leads to an immense pile of buildings- 
in the north side of the compound — temples, mortuaries, 
council-rooms. There is a fine long court in front of the 
whole line of buildings, with good gates leading from one to- 
the other. The first building (locked) is the Ching Mo Zz, 
containing memorial tablets ; the next is a fine temple to- 
Buddha. The shrines to the left and right are to Too Dien and 
Dien Tsu. At the west end are quantities of " potted China- 
men." The pots are of rough brown earthenware, about i& 
inches high, and sealed at the top. They contain the bones of 
Chinese, and are awaiting removal to Canton. There are long 
passages, each with eighteen dark rooms full of coffins ; there 
are also curious courts and passages with creepers and dwarf 
plants, and behind all a garden with rockwork into which 
a writhing dragon has been carved. In process of time this 
cemetery will be removed up the creek opposite the Fou Fong 
Flour Mill. 

A little farther up the Sinza Road, at No. B. 1,259 (next to a 
silk filature, No. 12), is the Sooehow mortuary. This is very 
different from the Cantonese one just described. Chinese 
buildings are not all alike, as is frequently thought. This 
Sooehow mortuary is not so sombre in style as the last ; wood 
largely takes the place of stone in the buildings, which are 
quaintly beautiful. The photographers will get capital studies 
of queer corners, gables, zigzag passages, and arbours. Two- 
fine guild-halls are first found, utterly comfortless, but good — 
good scrolls, carving, and furniture. Leaving these, go into- 
a bijou garden with trellises, rockwork, dwarf flowering shrubs, 
and surrounded by buildings of open carved work. Pass 
through a sliding door to the mortuary proper, where you find 
double rows of wooden mortuary cells containing the remains 
of Sooehow people. Down the centre of the quadrangle are 


Chinese Creek Life 

larger wooden buildings for the rich. Looking through the 
glass windows one sees their silk-covered coffins, surrounded 
by scrolls and inscriptions on silk and paper. The return 
may be made by the Carter Road, in which are the Japanese 
and Canton women's cemeteries. 

There are other features of Sinza which may be of interest 
to some. The industrial side of Shanghai is seen on both 
sides of the busy Soochow Creek. The Ice Company's works, 
Gas Company's works, and cotton mills are on the south side, 
and rice and acid works with silk filatures on the north side. 

The Soochow Creek at the upper part of Sinza affords 
plenty of objects of interest. Chinese creek life may be well 
seen along the Markham Road up to the foot of the new 
Robison Road in the loading and unloading of boats, bring- 
ing down pottery, fruit, vegetables, baskets, mats, brushes, 
sandals, etc., from the country ; on the south side boat-building 
is carried on, while beggars squat on every patch of vacant 

The portion of the Sinza Road from its junction with the 
Carter Road, westward, running round to the Cross Road at 
the Yu Yuen Gardens, is very pretty, and a favourite ride. 
There are good residences all the way along. Soon after 
leaving the Carter Road there will be noticed on the right 
a black boundary wall. These enclose the grounds of a 
Chinese gentleman, Mr. Sing Chun Ching, who very kindly 
permits strangers to view them. 


Route VIII 


SINCE the boundaries of the Settlement were enlarged in 
1899, the Municipal Council has been most laudably 
active in providing new roads for the rapidly growing com- 
munity. Their foresight has been beyond all praise. The 
rider, cyclist, and pedestrian, on the new country roads, are well 
provided for ; for driving, a pair of ponies ought to be taken, 
as the roads are not yet macadamised. 

A very favourite ride or walk is by Robison Road. It is 
reached by turning into the Carter Road a short distance past 
the Race Club on the Bubbling Well Road, then continue up 
the Markham Road. Note the signs over the shops in Carter 
Road, some of which are remarkable specimens of English. 
Markham Road has foreign residences on one side, and the 
Shanghai Brewery and a silk filature on the other. From this 
point to the foot of the Robison Road the road skirts the 
Soochow Creek, where the I.M. Customs has a station. The 
inland commerce of China may be well seen here, and its extent 
appreciated ; the fleets of boats sailing up with the tide make 
excellent pictures. Much produce from the interior is landed 
here. The road continues along the creek side to the Yu 
Yuen Cotton Mill. 

A country walk may be taken from this point by crossing 
the bridge, going up the side of the mill boundary wall and 
through a village, and up the creek side to the Fou Fong 
Flour Mill, a new mill fitted with the latest American 

Robison Road is named after an old resident . who was 
one of the original shareholders in the Shanghai Club. It 


Robison Road 

is still "a soft road," excellent for riding, a little heavy for 
driving, and quite passable for cyclists. There are two right- 
angled turns in it, of which riders, when galloping, should 
beware ; the first is at the end of about half a mile of straight 
road after crossing the second bridge, the second about three- 
quarters of a mile higher up. For those who have not much 
time to spend in Shanghai, it gives a good opportunity of 
seeing a little of the agriculture of the district — rice and cotton 
in summer, wheat in May. 

Ferry Road, branching off to the right, leads to the Soochow 
Creek. At. the head of Robison Road is an empty cotton 
mill, in and around which the British Indian troops were 
camped from 1900 to 1902. 

After crossing a bridge the Jessfield Road is reached - r 
thence home by Bubbling Well Road. 

The best country excursion has been briefly described in the 
section on the Bubbling Well Road. Drive to the top of the- 
Jessfield Road, turn up Brennan Road ; this gives a capital view 
of rural China. The traveller will also see a likin station oh the 
Soochow Creek at the Tajao village. After passing this likin 
station, turn to the left along the Rubicon Road (so named 
from the Rubicon Creek, alongside of which it runs^ well 
known to paper hunters), then to the left again down the 
Hungjao Road (which is to be continued to the hills), thence 
home by French Road, or Siccawei and Bubbling Well Roads. 


Route IX 


ATRIP to Siccawei, or Zi-ka-wei, to see the great Jesuit 
Mission, must by no means be omitted. The distance 
.(just about five miles or eight kilometres) is trifling, and the 
journey may be made on foot, on a bicycle, or in a carriage. 

The usual route is through the French Settlement and up 
the French Siccawei Road. The return journey may be made 
by the Siccawei Road to the Bubbling Well, and thence by 
the Bubbling Well Road to the Nanking Road. If this latter 
Toute be taken and the visitor be driving, he ought to 
have a strong horse in his carriage, as the Siccawei Road is very 
.soft and makes heavy going for a single China pony. One 
China pony can do it — he can do almost anything ; but 
foreigners ought to show the Chinese the greatly needed 
example of mercy to animals. 

About the French Siccawei Road not much need be said. 
A description of the part of the drive as far as St. Catherine's 
Bridge will be found in the account of the drive to Loongwha. 
The first building to the right after passing the bridge is the 
•Seventh Day Baptist Mission (U.S.A.). From this point the 
drive is a very pleasant one, the road being shaded by trees, 
among which acacias are numerous. The creek affords the 
photographer capital studies of the beggar and straw-boats, which 
are very numerous here. There is a very picturesque bend in 
the creek about half-way to Siccawei, with a thick grove of trees 
that makes an excellent subject. The immense number of 
grave mounds across the creek must be noted ; it has been 
said that in China you are never " out of sight of either a 
living Chinaman or a dead one." 



The Loongwha Powder Mill can be seen across the country 
on the left, and one or two houses on the Bubbling Well Road 
on the right. 

Sicawei village is not much in itself; it owes its whole 
importance to the mission. 

The Su family (whence the name, which means the place of 
the Su family) founded it, and the most noteworthy member 
was Su, a mandarin, during the Ming dynasty (about a.d. 1580). 
He accepted Christianity under Ricci, the famous Jesuit 
missionary, of whom there is an oil painting in the Observatory 
library. Under him the whole neighbourhood became 
practically Christian. During the persecution of Christianity 
that followed under Yung Ching (a.d. 1722) and his successors, 
the Jesuits had to leave the district, and Christianity became 
almost but not quite extinct. With the nucleus of remaining 
native Christians the Jesuit fathers recommenced their work 
about 1840, and the present extensive mission is the result of 
their self-denying labours. It is probably one of the best- 
equipped missions in the world. 

Arrived at Siccawei village, turn to the left and continue for 
about half a mile, and you will find the mission premises, the 
Girls' Orphanage and Boys' Orphanage. Cross the bridge 
and enter the gate of the Girls' Orphanage of the " Convent 
for the Assistance of Souls in Purgatory." Here, as in all 
mission premises, visitors are most courteously received; 
ladies unaccompanied by a gentleman are, however, not 
admitted. One of the sisters acts as guide. The industrial 
departments are of great interest. Girls are taught to earn 
their living after leaving school; silk and satin embroidery 
is done to perfection, and a screen made by the girls won a 
prize at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. Embroideries are made 
both for church adornment and for private use, for which 
orders may be given. The delicacy of the work is incredible. 
The visitor is then shown the weaving, dressmaking, washing, 
and ironing departments, where the snowy whiteness of the 
cotton and linen proves that the art of washing is well 

In the women's side of the establishment is a home for 


Sieeawei Orphanages 

destitute old women, who are employed in looking after a 
creche for deserted children. I can hardly advise any one to 
see these children, and certainly no woman ought to see them; 
some of them are such unspeakably pitiable and dreadful 
objects. The visitor may also inspect the school and the 
church, which has a fine high altar. 

The Boys' Orphanage will next be visited ; some two hundred 
boys receive a thoroughly sound education. One of the fathers 
kindly acts as guide, and the numerous visitors must be a 
severe tax on their energies. If it is a school year, a class may 
be shown ; but school cannot be interrupted too much. The 
industrial departments, however, do not suffer from the in- 
trusion of visitors, and are fully shown. The boys' work is 
equal to that of experts ; the woodwork is excellent. The 
boys make not only ecclesiastical articles, but furniture, well- 
designed sideboards, occasional tables, and other articles of 
furniture, which all show what skill the boys have attained to, 
and the profits made assist the funds of the institution. The 
painting-room should receive special attention ; the boys are 
taught drawing and tracing, and they copy pictures of eccle- 
siastical subjects for churches and schools and for private 
purchasers. Copies of the masterpieces of Europe are put 
before the boys. Whether the Chinese can be taught to paint 
imaginative subjects "out of their own heads" or to paint 
from nature is not settled by the work done here. There is 
also a thoroughly efficient printing department, where first-class 
work is done ; school-books of all kinds are published, as well 
as the original sinological works of the fathers, many of which 
are of great importance. We may also be fortunate enough 
to see the boys drill and hear their music. Some are quite 
capable of accompanying the church service on the harmonium. 

The scholastic work done in Shanghai district by the 
Jesuits, who have their headquarters at Sieeawei, will be appre- 
ciated from these figures, which I take from an interesting 
article in the fourth number, of The East of Asia, by Mr. C. 
Fink. Number of schools in Shanghai and district, 839 : for 
boys, 390 ; for girls, 449. Of these, 96 of the boys' schools 
take boarders, and 97 of the girls'. Pupils: boys, 3,262; 


Siccawei Observatory 

girls, 2,113, as boarders. Total pupils: boys, 11,262; girls, 
5,309. In addition there is at Siccawei a High School, St. 
Ignatius College. 

After leaving the school, the Carmelite Nunnery will be 
:seen inside a compound with white walls. 

We must now visit the most famous and best building of 
all — the Observatory. This is one of the great observatories 
■of the world, the fathers in charge of it being in communication 
with astronomers and meteorologists of all nations. It is 
the Observatory of the Far East, receiving reports from 
:Some sixty stations daily, and is responsible for the weather 
prophecies of the Far East, and forecasts of the weather appear 
•daily in the Shanghai papers. It is responsible for the signals 
•exhibited at the signal station on the French Bund, near the 
bridge across the Yang-king-pang Creek, and all shipping in 
the East depends upon it. 

, Promptly at twelve o'clock a time-ball falls at Shanghai, 
which is in electric communication with Siccawei. Daily the 
fathers issue weather-charts, one in French and one in 
English, which give particulars of the weather for the day, 
the movements of typhoon and other disturbances being 
graphically noted. 

The Observatory is a little beyond the Orphanage buildings 
just visited. Cross the compound, send in your card, and one 
■of the fathers in charge will be kind enough to show you all 
that may be shown. In the hall is an instrument on which 
the barometric and thermometric readings are automatically 
registered, along with the readings of the anemometer, which is 
.at the top of the solidly built tower. 

On the right of the hall is the library of literature connected 
•with the work of the institution. Reports of learned societies, 
■etc., MS. reports from the stations, and reports from captains 
■of steamers are carefully indexed and kept in drawers. The 
visitor should try and get a sight of the great map of the 
Yangtsze, which is on sixty sheets, by Father Chevalier. 

This Observatory was built in the year 1900, taking the place 
■of an older one built in 1870, which is now used for photographic 
purposes. Near the old observatory is the Natural History 


Nanyang: College 

Museum. This owes its existence to Father Heude, botanist, 
ornithologist, geologist, sinologue — in fact, a man who seemed 
to know everything and had been everywhere, from Java to 
Thibet. His collection of the plants of China is unrivalled, 
and should be seen, as well as the specimens of the animals 
of China. 

In visiting Siccawei, if a start is made in the morning, it is as 
well to take with you tiffin to eat in the carriage at noon, when 
all the mission premises are closed to visitors ; and it is a good 
plan to see the schools in the morning and the Observatory 
after tiffin. 

After seeing the sights of Siccawei, we may return by the 
French Road, or make a round by the Siccawei Road to the 
Bubbling Well ; but this should not be done if the carriage 
has only one pony. Suppose we do, however, make this 
round, note the Hungjao Road on the left ; the opening to it 
is among a row of Chinese houses. This is a new road now 
extending about five miles into the country, and intended 
ultimately to reach the " hills," where the Jesuit fathers have 
a mission and observatory. A few yards farther on are the 
two handsome red-brick blocks of Nanyang College, for the 
higher education of Chinese youths. It was opened in 1898. 
The Chinese Telegraph Administration and China Merchant 
Steamship Company, through Shong Kung Pao, built the 
College under the advice and direction of Dr. J. C. Ferguson, 
the first principal. The grounds and buildings are well worth 
a visit. Leaving Nanyang College, the new French Road is 
on the right, and this affords a shorter route home than the 
Siccawei Road. 

Both roads give a stranger a good idea of the country round 
Shanghai, with its villages, graves, bamboo groves, and in 
summer its enormous fertility. 

If the route by the "Bubbling Well be taken, tea may be had 
at the St. George's Farm near the Well. 

For subjects of interest between the Well and Shanghai, see 
the " Drive to Jessfield." 

Route X 


THERE is one imperative reason why every visitor to 
Shanghai ought, if possible, to enjoy this drive — it is 
the only chance Shanghai affords of a sight of a pagoda. 
These structures, by the way, are not scattered about China as 
plentifully as pepper on a plate, as Western artists depict 
them in their fancy views of China : they are scarce rather 
than otherwise ; consequently the traveller round the world, 
who possibly calls at Hongkong and Shanghai only of Chinese 
ports, will have to leave the country without seeing one of its 
most characteristic architectural features, if he does not 
embrace the opportunity of seeing this famous pagoda (Chinese, 
tah) at Loongwha, which is one of the best preserved in 

A carriage drawn by a strong horse rather than a Chinese 
pony should be ordered ; the road is somewhat rough in parts, 
and nothing detracts more from a drive than the feeling that 
you are overdriving a wearied animal. The cost will be $4, 
and I will describe the usual route rather than the possible, but 
unusual one by the Whangpoo side, along the French and 
Chinese Bunds. 

Starting from the Bund, we may take one of two or more 
routes through the Foreign Settlement. We may go by the 
French Bund, up the Rue de Consulat, at the top of which 
road we may take any turn to the left and reach the Quai de la 
Breche, which is only separated from the walls of the native 
city by the moat or creek. 

We may reach the same point on this road by driving up the 


Ningpo Joss-house 

Nanking Road, turning to the left along the Yunnan Road, 
■crossing the Yang-king-pang Creek, and continuing along the 
Rue de Palikao, in which, enclosed in a compound, we note 
the premises of the Southern Methodist Mission (U.S.A.). 

Immediately on the left, when we reach the Quai de la 
Breche, we observe a long line of yellow-plastered wall ; inside 
this is the renowned " Ningpo Joss-house." This is not so 
much a temple, as the headquarters of the natives of Ningpo, 
who form the most numerous class of immigrants into 
Shanghai ; many of the most important native bankers, com- 
pradores, and storekeepers hail from Ningpo, as well as the 
best houseboys and the sampan-men. The good Chinaman's 
most intense desire is to be buried in his ancestral city or 
village, and in this joss-house there is accommodation for the 
•coffins of deceased Ningpo men, until such time as the 
geomancers pronounce lucky for the removal of the deceased 
to Ningpo or the family can afford the removal. There are 
:similar joss-houses for natives of other places. It was an 
unlucky proposal of the French Municipal Council to drive 
a road through the grounds of this joss-house, which provoked 
-a riot on July 16th, 1898. On the right-hand side of the road, 
opposite the joss-house, there is a large burial-ground for the 
poorer Ningpo people ; each grave is marked by a small stone. 
•Chinese geomancers only find difficulty in choosing a lucky 
spot for the grave of a rich man ; the poor man is soon fixed, 
-as his friends can pay no fees. 

Immediately past the joss-house the road skirts the creek, 
outside the wall of the native city. This part of the creek is 
-a great resort for the beggar tribe, and their boats with their 
mat covers, under which the whole family live, are easily 

The building on the wall of the city, immediately the wall 
comes in view, is the temple of the god of war ; and this 
part of the road is typically Chinese, and is worth the delay 
•occasioned by the crowd. While the speed is reduced to a 
walking pace, the character of the crowd may be noted — 
barrow-men and cake sellers, cobblers, beancake pedlars, 
.bamboo coolies, women with babies tied on their backs, all 


Li Tsoo Dien Temple 

make a motley crowd. The jinrickshaws in this locality com- 
prise all the broken-down specimens forbidden in the Foreign 
Settlement. The horse will probably have to be led through 
the narrowest part of the road, which has buildings on both 
sides. This brings us to the open space outside the West 
Gate of the city ; the gate itself is not visible, but it is to the 
left immediately after passing the bottle-neck on the road that 
I have described. You cross a wooden bridge over the creek 
and find a low, disreputable doorway through the wall. The 
West Gate is the least imposing, but the busiest ; outside it, 
on each side of the road, is a market where every variety of 
vegetable, with fish and dark red buffalo beef, is for sale. 

Good photographs of Chinese business life may be got 

The road crosses St. Catharine's Bridge (a wooden one) ; the 
old Chinese stone bridge is close to it, and here a good 
photograph may be taken of the straw-boats that jamb up the 
waterway. Just after passing a part of the road with houses on 
each side, in one of which wooden idols are made, we arrive 
at the country, and stop about a hundred yards after the houses 
cease. On the right we see a typical Chinese gate, which is 
the entrance to the temple of the god of thunder, Li Tsoo Dien. 
Curiously enough, next to it is the entrance to the Bridgeman 
Home, a mission of the Women's Christian Union (U.S.A.), 
which is named in honour of the Rev. E. C. Bridgeman, the 
first American missionary in China, which he reached in the 
year 1829. The ladies who conduct the mission would be 
glad to show visitors over their schools. 

Returning to the temple, the gateway is a very beautiful one, 
and makes a splendid photograph ; the orange walls have 
well-drawn pictures from Chinese mythology on them, and the 
roofs are beautifully ornamented. A footpath leads to a plain 
wooden gate, inside which is a flagged court. The building on 
the left on entering is the shrine of Tien Jing, the warrior of 
heaven. In the middle of the court is a tall incense burner ;. 
printed paper, being sacred, is also burnt in it. It is not 
ancient, having been cast at Woosieh (north of Soochow) in. 
the twelfth year of the Emperor Kwangsu — i.e. fifteen years. 


Li Tsoo Dien Temple 

ago. The temple itself is only twenty years old, and was 
built by Mr. Shu. 

In the centre of the temple floor is a ferocious-looking 
wooden image with bronzed face, with a pale-faced wife sitting 
on his left. He might be mistaken for the god of thunder, 

Idol, Loongwha Temple 

but he is Mo-san, and he and his wife are dressed in em- 
broidered scarlet silk robes. We must go behind this image, 
where we shall find a red lacquer and gilt shrine, in the centre 
of which is the figure of the tutelary deity of the temple — the 
god of thunder, with his black beard ; he holds in his hands 
a pen and a joo-i, an ornament which, for want of a better 


Nien Tsung Dien 

name, has been called a sceptre. It is an emblem of amity, 
and is of a " shape less bent than the letter S, about eighteen 
inches long'' (Davis). Its strictly religious origin is proved 
by the fact of its having the lotus frequently carved on the disc 
at the end of it. The joo-i carved in jade stone is a very 
valued gift. 

After rejoining the carriage, we pass, on the left, the Margaret 
Williamson Hospital for Chinese women, built in 1885, and 
rebuilt, after a fire, in 1899. It belongs to the Women's Union 
Mission (U.S.A.). The lady doctors who work it live at 
" Stevenside," a good foreign-built residence farther up the 
road. But before reaching it, look out for a small octagonal 
building on the left over a bamboo fence, which is a Baby 
Tower, a receptacle for dead babies. It is not, as has sometimes 
been thought, for the convenience of the practice of infanticide, 
which does not seem to exist in this neighbourhood. 

Outside " Stevenside " there are three roads : that to the left 
leads down to the south gate of the city ; the road by which we 
have come goes to Siccawei. We take the road which crosses 
the wooden bridge over the creek opposite " Stevenside "■ 

There is a guardhouse with Chinese soldiers by the bridge, 
because this is the way to the Kiangnan Arsenal. We pass 
several of them en route ; the soldiers have blue coats with red 
facings. At the next turn of the road on the right is an 
imposing building which looks like a temple, but is not ; it is 
the Guild-house of the natives of Hwuy-chau, in the province of 
Ngan-hwui, west of Hangchow, in the green tea country. The 
roof is very fine, the ridges being covered with mythological 
figures in stone. The main building has red lacquer railings. 
The building is quite new, the incense burner bearing the date 
25th year of Kwangsu (i.e. it is two years old), and is noteworthy 
as proving that the Chinese have not lost the art of building 
and founding, as it is sometimes asserted. 

The cemetery, with low gravestones, on the left after passing 
this Guild-house, is an instance of native charity : it is for the 
free burial of the poor, and is called the Nien Tsung Dien, or 
righteous man's burial-ground. Of course the righteous man 


Kiangnan Arsenal 

is the donor, who has heaped up a great deal of merit by his 

Another mile along the road brings us to the entrance 
to the Kiangnan Arsenal. Permission to view it can only be 
obtained by ticket from the Director-General. 

The Arsenal was established in 1867 by Li Hung Chang, 
who soon after the Taiping rebellion founded an arms factory 
in Hongkew. This soon became too small, and led to the 
erection of the vast buildings on the present site, which cover 
several acres. A dry dock, 400 feet long, is used for repairing 
Chinese gunboats ; one or two have even been built. 

The Chinese workmen show remarkable skill in using com- 
plicated and delicate modern machinery. Rifles and heavy 
ordnance are turned out, equal, it is said, to those of the West ; 
even disappearing guns are manufactured, and shells up to 
700 lbs. weight. All the castings, turned brass work, etc., 
are made here ; there is no patent law in China, hence the 
Chinese are at liberty to copy any patent ordnance or 
machinery of the West. Mr. N. E. Cornish, late of Lord 
Armstrong's works at Newcastle, is the foreign director. 
Under Dr. John Fryer there is also a department for the 
translation of standard foreign books into Chinese. 

Outside the Arsenal gate is a signpost with three arms : 

To Shanghai. 
To Loongwha. 
To Arsenal. 

The road to Loongwha is to the right, and the most noticeable 
feature of this part of the drive is the immense extent of the 
peach orchards : as far as the eye can see it is all peach 
orchard. Shanghai is very famous for a flattened variety of 
this fruit, and this drive in April, when the country is a sea of 
white blossom, is very beautiful. 

The only noteworthy features en route are a fine funeral 
pailow, and two ancient gravestones, upright shafts of carved 
stone some 15 feet high. Typical Chinese farms may be noted, 
and after crossing the Limestone Creek by a wooden bridge we 
are in the village of Loongwha. There is a winding creek to the 



Whangpoo, the approach for houseboat parties to the pagoda. 
Facing us, this creek, with a stone bridge over it, makes a 
good picture. Loongwha, however, is attractive for its temple 
and pagoda. The former is on the east side of a great open 
space, which at festival times is crammed with worshippers, 
hucksters, jugglers, and all the odds and ends of both silk- 
robed and ragged celestial humanity. The beggar king has 
often been photographed, with his professional rags and fat 
face ; he has for years been one of the features of Loongwha. 

The great temple is worth a good deal of attention. It 
is dedicated to the King of Heaven, and is a typical Chinese 
temple, kept in good order. Connected with it is a monastery 
with three hundred monks, who conduct the services. The 
plan of it is simple : an oblong enclosure about 150 yards 
long and 60 yards wide, with four main buildings and three 
courts and smaller shrines down the west wall (on the left as 
you enter), and the priests' dwellings on the right. The 
Biblical student can obtain a better idea of the temple at 
Jerusalem with its courts from . a temple like this than from 
any Western building. The Jewish priests lived on the 
premises, as we learn from 1 Kings vi. 5, " Solomon built 
dwellings against the walls of the house round about, and 
he made chambers round about.'' 

The first building is dedicated to Midoo, the coming 
Buddha. He is the most popular god in China, and is 
worshipped con amore. There are scrolls of Indian subjects 
on the walls. To the left and right of the first court are the 
Drum and Bell Towers. These are not to summon wor- 
shippers, but to arouse Buddha's attention, and are fine three- 
storied buildings. Similar ones are found in all Buddhist 
temples in Japan. Crossing the first court, we enter the great 
wooden gates of the building dedicated to Tien Waung Dien 
(the god of heaven), where there is a double shrine in the 
centre of the floor to Waydoo, behind whom is the god of 
wealth. There are four gigantic and hideous painted figures 
of wood, two on each side of the temple. These are the four 
heavenly kings, Sz Tien Waung ; the two on the right have 
snakes twisted round their bodies, and one on the left is 


The Tah Ying Pau Dien 

playing a lute ; the other holds an umbrella (see " Bubbling 
Well Temple "). That the Chinese do in some sense acknow- 
ledge heaven as supreme seems certain. Dr. Du Bose says 
that the most potent force in conserving the Chinese nation so 
long is " their religion," " their faith in the powers above, 
controlling the destiny of the Empire and the fortune of the 
people." A proverb says, " You may deceive men, but not 
heaven." The emperor is the " son of heaven." 

Crossing the second court, there faces us the principal 
temple and largest building, the Tah Ying Pau Dien, or 
temple to Buddha. In China there are three religions, 
Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism, which are all mixed up; 
the gods of all three, with aboriginal nature worship, are 
inextricably mingled. A finely executed image of Buddha 
occupies the centre, " a statue solid set, and moulded in 
colossal calm." 

At each side of him are the figures of the two patriarchs. The 
one on the right is Kashiapa (Sanscrit, Samantabadra) : he is 
the special patron of those who practise a species of ecstatic 
meditation ; he was converted by seeing Buddha put the 
dragon into a rice-bowl. The one on the left is Ananda 
(Sanscrit, Manjuori), "the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom": 
he was " the constant companion of the sage " ; he never left 
Buddha's side. With a thousand secretaries he wrote down 
the dharma, or law, which he had listened to so attentively 
that it was indelibly impressed on his memory. Each of 
these patriarchs is seated on a sacred lotus, which is supported 
by an elephant, which in its turn rests on a massive and 
elegantly carved pediment of red and black soap-stone. 
Candles of red wax burn as usual in front of the image, and 
should the visitor visit the temple between 3 and 4 p.m., he 
will be able to witness a Buddhist service. 

The monks are dressed in yellow robes ; their heads are 
shaven, and the spots on their heads where the skin is bare 
are " branded by lighted incense, which, burning on the head, 
leaves an indelible impression." Those deeply initiated are 
known by the number of spots. The priests do not bear the 
best of reputations among the people. Should the visitor 


The Dien Zaung Waving 

be there during service, he will see the priests kneeling on 
mats in front of the image. A gong of fine bronze, in the 
shape of a huge bowl, is struck with a wooden pestle, where- 
upon the priests commence a chant, most of which they do 
not understand, knocking their heads nine times upon the 
ground, first facing the image, and then the two companies 
face one another. The great wooden fish, a sacred symbol, is 
beaten at intervals, and the priests sometimes make a sinuous 
procession round the floor in front of it. At the conclusion 
the chief priest prostrates himself nine times, when all file out 
in proper ecclesiastical style. 

Do not attempt to walk about the temple while worship is 
proceeding, for undevout as the priests appear, looking round 
at the foreigners all the time, there is no reason why we should 
treat them worse than we should expect them to treat our 
worship. It is by inattention to these matters that foreigners 
get into disrepute with the Chinese. 

There is a great bell on the left side of Buddha and a drum 
on the right ; these are like the drum and bell in the towers 
at the entrance to the temple, to call the attention of the god 
to the fact that he is about to be worshipped, not to call the 
attention of worshippers, as with us. Buddha needs rousing. 
Biblical students may compare this with the Old Testament 
references to the deafness of the gods' of the heathen ; vide 
the account of Elijah on Carmel and the priests of Baal, 
i Kings xviii. 27. Elijah taunts them: " peradventure he 
sleepeth, and must be awaked." 

Notice that around the walls are thirty-six images — eighteen 
on each side. There are the Sing Sen Dien, so-called locally ; 
but they are most likely the eighteen Lohan, each one dupli- 
cated. These are the eighteen immediate and most worthy 
disciples of Buddha. 

Crossing the third court, we come to the last temple, and it 
may be remarked that while we call the whole of the mass of 
buildings the temple of Loongwha, each of the buildings 
within it dedicated to different gods must be called a temple 
too. This last temple is the Dien Zaung Waung, the temple 
of the " god of the earth.'' This idol is a small one of bronze- 


Loong-wha Temple 

coloured wood in the centre of the floor ; he too has a disciple 
at each side of him, " the two thoughts engraven on the 
Chinese mind are the duties of honouring the father and 
mother who care for them in childhood, and of worshipping 
Heaven and Earth, the great father and mother of the 

The best way to go back to the entrance gate is to walk up 
to the right-hand {i.e. right on returning) or west side; this- 
enables us to see three more of the subsidiary temples in this 
great enclosure. The first is on the right of this last court, 
close to the Dien Zaung Waung, and is dedicated to Kwanyin, 
the most popular of Chinese deities. She was the daughter of 
an Indian king. She insisted on entering a nunnery rather 
than marry, and returned from the underworld to heal her 
father, sending him her own eye and hand. Her name means 
"heedful of prayers"; she is the patron of mothers, a 
compound of the Venus Genetrix and Lucina of ancient 
Rome. She is the " sailor's god " ; she protects in sorrow, and 
the prayer to her is, " Great mercy, great pity, save from evil, 
great responsive Kwanyin." She is the model of beauty ; 
other gods are feared while she is loved. She is the Kwannon 
of Japan (in Sans, Avalokitesvara), and has numerous meta- 
morphoses, the most popular being that of the " thousand 
handed Kwannon.'' Note on her right her companions, 
thirty-six monks, each one differently occupied — one nursing 
a child, one' holding a lion, one studying a book, etc. 

Passing on, we come to another temple to the coming 
Buddha, the one god in China sincerely worshipped, and 
this is facing the court. In this shrine Buddha is 
enclosed in a glass case, with flowers about it. The last 
of the smaller temples is found up a passage on the right, 
just beyond the preceding one near the exit gate. The 
visitor will find at the end of the passage a court with a 
gold-fish pond in the centre ; beyond it is a spirit-wall, the 
function of which is to baffle spirits roaming about at night, to 
prevent them finding their way into houses. The Chinese 
attribute the meanest intelligence to their gods. The temple 
opposite the wall is to the Lohan, and ranged round the 


Loong-wha Pagoda 

wall are bronze-coloured images of 500 monks. This completes 
our survey of this great temple. 

Crossing the open space, we are in front of the great pagoda. 
As far as the origin of pagodas is concerned, the opinion of 
Dr. A. P. Parker, of Shanghai, will be of interest. He says : 

Loongwha Pagoda 

" So far as my investigations have gone, I find that the 
building of pagodas in China followed the introduction of 
Buddhism into the country. The Soochow History, a Chinese 
book of 150 volumes, in giving accounts of the various pagodas 
in and around Soochow, almost invariably states that they 
were built in connection with some Buddhist temple, and it is 


Origin of Pagodas 

plainly stated that the great pagoda in the north part of 
Soochow was built to hold some Buddhist relics that were 
supposed to have been brought there from India. The style 
of architecture is Indian, and of itself, proves them to be of 
foreign origin. It is true^that in later years, or rather later 
centuries, we might say, the original purpose for the erection 
of pagodas has been largely lost sight of by the people, and 
they are now considered more as being vitally connected with 
the Feng Shui of the region where they stand, rather than as 
peculiarly Buddhistic in their object. There is a black square 
pagoda situated north of our Methodist premises inside the 
east gate of Soochow, which, according to the Soochow 
History, was built to correct the Feng Shui of the region and 
assist the scholars of that part of the city in getting through 
the Government examinations and securing the emoluments 
coming therefrom. But it is nevertheless true that all of the 
old pagodas were built originally as an expression of devotion 
on the part of Buddhist devotees. For instance, the oldest 
pagoda in Soochow, the one at the south gate, was built by Sun 
Kuen, a famous ruler of the Wu kingdom, who flourished 
about a.d. 300, in honour of his mother, who, with himself, 
were devoted believers in Buddha, and this pagoda was an 
expression of his faith and devotion. As to the number of 
stories, I do not think there is any well-established rule, 
except that I have heard that the number is always an odd 
number, as 7, 9, 13, etc. The large pagoda in North Soochow 
has nine stories. : There is a famous pagoda near Pekin of 
thirteen stories ; and some smaller ones are built containing 
seven stories. I do not remember to have seen or heard of 
any pagoda less than seven or more than thirteen stories." 
Since the time of the Boxer outbreak in 1900 the pagoda 
has been closed. If the key can be procured from the priests 
of the temple, the ascent to the top should be made. There 
is a magnificent view of the country. 


French Consulate 


(Route I) 

A WALK along the Quai de France and Quai de Keen Le 
Yuen, or, to give them their usual name, the French 
Bund, should be made. Starting from the bridge over the 
Yang-king-pang Creek, the first noteworthy object is the signal 
station on the left near the bridge, where the weather forecasts 
for the China coast are signalled from the world-famous 
observatory at Siccawei. Weather charts in French and 
English are hung up for inspection. Contiguous to it is the 
pontoon from which the tenders for the French and German 
mail steamers sail. The offices are on the opposite side of 
the road. 

At the corner of the Rue du Consulat, overlooking the 
river, is the handsome pile of the French Consulate-General. 
The foundation stone of the building was laid on August 22nd, 
1894, and it was opened on January 14th, 1896. The architect 
was M. J. J. Chollot, the present municipal surveyor. The 
architecture is of the modern colonial type, with large 


French Bund 

verandah. The front of 
it faces the Rue du Con- 
sulat, from which it is 
separated by a good 
garden. The building 
at the opposite corner of 
the street is a Roman 
Catholic Mission, the 
Procure des Missions 

From this point on- 
ward the French Bund 
is wholly given up to 
business. The offices 
and godowns of the great 
British shipping firm of 
Butterfield & Swire (Tai- 
Koo) cover a very large 
area. There is no better 
place to obtain an idea 
of the business of 
Shanghai than a walk 
along this Bund. Butter- 
field and Swire's steamers 
line the wharf; merchan- 
dise of all kinds is being 
carried on bamboo poles 
across the road to and 
from the godown. The 
weights carried by these 
coolies will astonish 
strangers, as well as the 
expedition with which 
vessels are loaded and 
unloaded. It will be 
noted that the absence 
of docks in Shanghai 
results in the river pre- 

French Bund 

senting a scene of far greater animation, with steamers, cargo^ 
boats, sampans, and craft of all kinds, than any home com- 
mercial river presents. The Mersey is dull compared with the 

At the end of Butterfield and Swire's premises is an open 
space on the right from which the city wall is visible. There 
is the water-tower in the Place du Chateau d'Eau, belonging 
to the French waterworks for supplying the Settlement. The 
water is drawn from the upper reaches of the Whangpoo. 
The cost was about Tls. 350,000, and water was turned on 
first in February, 1902. 

From this point there are two roads open — to continue 
along the Quai de France, with the enormous godowns of 
the China Merchants Co. on the left, or turn to proceed along 
the Quai de Keen Le Yuen. The latter is a very interesting 
walk. The wharves are lined with the steamers of the China 
Merchants Co., distinguishable by the yellow band on their 
funnels. The photographer can obtain good pictures along 
this quay. 

We reach the limits of the Settlement at the Rue de l'Est, 
where there is a police station. The native city may be 
entered here by the east gate. 

We may vary our return walk by proceeding up the Rue de 
l'Est to the Quai des Ramparts, which borders the city wall. 
The buildings on the wall and under the wall, with the creek 
and crowds of Chinese, afford good pictures. We arrive again 
at the Place du Chateau d'Eau, where we may return by the 
French Bund, or we may continue up the Quai de Fosses to 
the western end of the Settlement, at the head of the Rue du 
Consulat. (See next walk.) 


Chinese Tumblers 


(Route II) 

THE French Settlement is bisected by a long thoroughfare, 
the Rue du Consulat, otherwise known as the French 

The first street crossing it at right angles is the Rue 
Montauban, with the first-class H6tel des Colonies at the 
corner, with an Annexe on the opposite side of the road. 
Nearer the International Settlement is the French Post Office, 
a new red-brick building. Turning to the left along the same 
street is the Convent School, the French Municipal School, 
and St. Joseph's Church standing well back from the road with 
a flagged court in front of it. This church was begun in 1859, 
and opened at the Feast of the Assumption in 1862. It is 
used for services both for foreigners and for Chinese Christians, 
as is the case with all the Catholic churches in the settlements. 
There are large numbers of pictures over the altars and round 
the walls, many of them painted by the pupils at the school at 

97 7 

Opium-smoking Den 

Siccawei. Over the high altar is a large oil painting of St. 
Joseph and the Holy Child. In the chapel by the south door 
is a very well executed carved scene of the Crucifixion, Mary 
with the body of Jesus ; the twelve apostles are carried round 
the altar. 

For half a mile or thereabouts the Rue du Consulat is 
lined with Chinese shops for the sale of goods of all 
descriptions : the side streets are of a rather squalid, poverty- 

Fsench Town Hall 

stricken type. There are second-hand shops with immense 
quantities of old Chinese tools, books, clothes, etc. An odd 
curio may be picked up in these. In the Rue Discry is a 
wood carving shop, and in the Rue de la Porte du Nord a 
shop for the sale of white porcelain idols (very dear). There 
is also one very large opium-smoking establishment. This 
should be visited* The drug is purchased on entering ; a large 
stock of pipes is kept. Upstairs one sees room after room of 
opium sots, men and women in all stages of intoxication down 
to absolute imbecility. One glimpse at a place like this ought 


French Town Hall 

to convince any reasonable mind that the pleas for opium 
smoking are only due to self-interest or ignorance. 

In the lot between . the Rue Protet and the Rue 
de l'Administration stands the French Town Hall, an imposing 
building in the modern colonial style, which is seen to great 
advantage in the spacious ground surrounding it. As has 
been said, it is a little bit of France transplanted to China. 
The principal building was erected in 1864, and the side 
pavilions in 1877. The first object that strikes our attention 
is a bronze statue on a granite pedestal, occupying the centre 
of the grounds. It is to Admiral Protet, who was killed 
fighting against the Taiping rebels at Nanjao, near Soochow, 
May 17th, 1862. The inscription reads as follows: — 










The statue is the work of Thiebaut. The whole effect of the 
grounds, with their well-swept paths and Parisian lamp-posts, 
the handsome facade of the Town Hall with its dome and 
windows and ornamentation, is very tasteful. The double 
flight of steps leading up to the main door adds greatly to 
the appearance of the building. The interior is well adapted 
for the purpose for which it was built. Off a long passage are 
the -offices of the secretary, of the central police station, of the 
electrical engineer, and other officials. There are quarters for 
the non-commissioned officers in the side pavilions. To the 
left of the staircase is the Fetes Hall, a very fine apartment 
for public functions, with mirrors, heavy hangings, and a small 
stage at one end. 

On leaving, the fire station of " Le Torrent " will be 


Fortune Tellers 

In the Rue de 1' Administration are situated the electric 
lighting works of the municipality. In this street, by the way, 
fortune tellers may always be seen. They tell fortunes by 
cards, by birds, and other ingenious methods. The 
photographer will see pictures of refreshment and crockery 
stalls, etc. This whole district is good ground photographically. 
Crossing the bridge into the Shantung Road, he will find an 
abundance of subjects — barbers at work, hawkers, scroll, ink- 
slab, crockery, food sellers, etc., etc. 

The only other foreign buildings in the Rue du Consulat is 
the Police Station, and farther west along the Rue Palikao 
is the church and premises of the Southern Methodist (U.S.A.) 

A return may be made to the Bund by the route described 
next (III.), or Route IV. may be " done " from this point. 



(Route III) 

THOSE who wish to see Chinese Shanghai almost un- 
adulterated by anything foreign ought to take the 
walk along the Quai des Fosses and the Quai de la Breche, 
that run along the city moat. They are reached by turning 
along any street to the left as you go up the Rue du Consulat. 
Innumerable characteristic photographs may be taken. Owing 
to the crowded state of the thoroughfare, jinrickshaws are 
tediously slow ; walking is best. Things to be noted are 
numerous. The water in the moat is of the filthiest descrip- 
tion, yet the people wash their rice in it, and cook with it, and 
live. The Chinese have evidently had for ages an empirical 
knowledge of the scientific fact that prolonged boiling kills 
bacteria, otherwise there would have been no Chinese left. 
Their eating cooked food only has been their salvation. 
Beggars in their boats seem quite comfortable, even when left 
stranded by the tide on the awful black mud. 

The space between the moat walk and the city wall is 
occupied by shanties in every stage of senile decrepitude, 
piles of earthenware, Soochow kongs, and other merchandise. 
There is a footpath along which droves of black pigs are driven 
by the aid of bamboo poles, which are liberally applied to 
their unwilling bacon ! "Cruelty to animals" is a conception 
that has not yet entered the Celestial head. 

The space between the road and the creek is not wasted. 
Here stalls are erected; cheap clothes in all shades of blue, 
new and second-hand, look ridiculous enough with bamboos 
stuck through arms and legs. There are stalls for copper- 
ware, kettles, chafing-dishes, bowls, pans, pewter-ware stalls 
with candlesticks to hold red candles on altars, pewter storks 
and figures, snuff-boxes, and innumerable odds and ends. 
The accumulated fag-ends of the whole Settlement find their 
way to the second-hand dealers, who spread their wares on 
the ground. You may pick up a few blue snuff-bottles for 

The City Moat 

a few cents. These dealers exemplify the Chinese principle 
that nothing should be wasted. If a customer cannot afford 
five cents he may afford five cash. It is always worth while 
to look for curios along this road. The shops along the 
side of the road opposite the creek are much given to watches 

Women going to Worship 
The first one has paper sycee in her hand 

and clocks, jade-stone ornaments, pewter-ware, copper goods, 
and brasses. In the part of the road between the points 
where the Rue Petit and Rue de l'Administration run into 
it very good brasses may be purchased. Do not pay the 
price first named, nor believe that every incense-burner 
" b'long Ming," as the ingenuous dealer declares. The China- 


North Gate 

man is an obliging creature, and having observed that the 
"foreign devil" wants brasses of the Ming dynasty, he has 
promptly supplied them in unlimited quantities. 

The entrances to the New North Gate (opposite the Rue 
Montauban) and to the North Gate (opposite to the Rue 
Porte du Nord) are very interesting— always crowded, always 

North Gate of Native City 

dirty, always littered up with lepers and with beggars adver- 
tising their self-made sores, always sloppy with the water spilt 
by the water-carriers, a wild jostle of coolies, silk-arrayed 
gentlemen, sedan-chairs, hobbling women, melancholy dogs, 
and all the flotsam and jetsam of a Chinese crowd. The 
photographer and seeker after the picturesque [errs greatly if 
he misses these city gates. 



(Route IV) 

THE recent extension of the Settlement west of the 
Defence Creek, along which runs the Quai de l'Ouest, 
presents features of interest. It is reached from the Rue du 
Consulat, or along the Thibet Road from the Nanking Road. 
The old cemetery is situated in this district. It may be reached 
from the Thibet Road. Cross the bridge over the Defence 
Creek at the corner of the Recreation Ground, and proceed 
along the Rue du Cimetiere. Either go straight on and turn 
to the right, or go up the continuation of the Rue du Consulat 
and take the first to the left. This cemetery is beautifully 
laid out; being old, the trees and shrubs are well grown. 
There is peacefulness and beauty in this last resting-place for 
the foreigners of Shanghai. The remains of all nationalities 
lie together here. This cemetery has recently been extended. 
There is a neat chapel. 

At the corner of the road, the Rue Kou Chan, opposite the 
cemetery gate, is a Chinese temple with orange-tinted walls. 
It has a wonderfully sweet and mellow bell ; the sound of it 
adds greatly to the solemnity of funerals conducted in the 
neighbouring cemetery. This temple is the Foo Li Zen Yuen 
Nu. It is Buddhist. The priests are from the sacred island 
of Pootu, in the Chusan Archipelago. The most striking 
feature in it is a gigantic Buddha : the face measures 36 feet 
from the chin to the top of the head. It is of wood, gilded, 
and reminds one of the Daibutsu at Kamakura in Japan. 
The temple is entered by the back door, a little farther up 
the road. 

Beyond the cemetery, and to the south and west of it, the 
French Council has laid out a large number of new roads, 
which are being very rapidly lined with foreign houses. 


North Gate of Native City from the Inside 


THE French Council has shown great enterprise in opening 
new roads into the country. These roads, connected 
with the splendid roads of the International Settlement, afford 
facilities for walking, cycling, riding, and driving that Shanghai 
has long needed. 

The great Avenue de Paul Brunat starts at the corner of 
the old cemetery and runs right out to the Siccawei Road, 
near Nanyang College, whence a circuit may be made to 
the Bubbling Well Road by turning to the right, and by the 
French Siccawei Road on turning to the left on reaching the 
head of the road. The first cross-road on the Avenue de Paul 
Brunat leads to the Mohawk Road and the Race Club. It is 
the Route des Sceurs. The next branch on the right leaves 
the Avenue de Paul Brunat obliquely, running up to the 
Bubbling Well Road. The Route de Big Grave runs across 
to the French Siccawei Road. The site of the camp occupied 
by the French troops from 1900- 1903 is on the fifth road to 
the left after leaving the old cemetery. 

io 5 



(Route I) 

A GREAT mistake is made by any traveller or resident 
who does not visit this district. It is a rich field for any 
one who takes interest in "things Chinese." The way to it is 
right along the French Bund (Quai de France). Do not turn 
down to the left opposite the French water-tower, but go 
straight on, keeping the huge long " godowns " of the China 
Merchants on the left. This brings us to the south limit of 
the French settlement, near a red-brick police station. Here 
you may get on the Chinese Bund ; but if you have any wish to 
see native life, continue in the same straight line along the 
main street. The 'rickshaws must be left here, if you have come 
in one, and a new one, licensed by the Chinese authorities, 
engaged. It is best, however, to walk. A Chinese guide 
should always be taken for an excursion like this. It is 
impossible to give directions as to finding places in such a 
district that would be of any use to a foreigner. 

This street, a continuation of the Quai de France, is a very 
busy one, always crowded : every house some kind of shop. 
Those who have no intention of visiting the native city will 
get a better idea of it from this suburb of Nantao than 
from any Chinese street in the International Settlement. 

It is as well here to look in at the busy east gate of the city. 

About a quarter of a mile up the street there is a building 
on the right that is apparently a temple, but is not. It is the 
guild-house of the wood merchants from Chuchou, in the 
province of Chekiang, near the Fokien border. Go up a 
narrow and dirty lane to the left of the building and enter by 
a narrow door. This is the Dzau Dzu Way way. There are 
two open courts, a theatre, and temple, the god worshipped 
being the Nyang-Nyang boussa (god), with the ferocious-looking 

1 06 


Chei-Aye and Wong Tu Aye at the right and left hands. 
Here the timber merchants meet to discuss common matters 
of interest, and settle disputes. 

Proceeding farther along the street, we pass under an arch- 
way in a whitewashed wall. At the other side of it is a square 
built in on all sides by high walls. A fair and small market 
are held here. The photographer can obtain very Chinesy 
subjects — the public storyteller at work, peep-shows, etc., etc. 

View in Nantao 

The huge wall on the left is the back of a guild-house, which 
we shall visit later from the Bund. 

Farther along the street, away back among squalid tenements, 
like " a jewel in a swine's snout," is one of the most magnificent 
guild-houses in Shanghai, in many respects far finer and more 
tasteful in all its appointments than the better-known Bankers' 
Guild-house on the North Honan Road. It is the Mosang Way 
Kway, which you must ask your Chinese iguide to find. It 
is on the right, back from the road, about a quarter of a 
mile past the white arch. The Mosang Way Quay is 


Tung-ka-doo Cathedral 

another timber merchants' guild. Entrance is secured from 
a door up a passage. The temple and theatre are resplendent 
with gold and red. The shrine of the Nyang-Nyang boussa 
is more cunningly carved than any I have seen : halberds, 
storks, incense-burners are of the best pewter ; on the walls are 
bosses, reliefs of mythological subjects done first in wet clay, 
as are the figures over so many doorways. They are exqui- 
sitely executed. The walls are in lozenge and chequered pattern, 
like the tops of Ningpo tables. Finer examples of work in 
Chinese style are not to be found anywhere. 

The next object of interest is the cathedral of Tung-ka-doo. 
Continue along the same street until you strike a fairly broad 
Chinese thoroughfare. Turn to the right, where will be found 
the great church, the largest and finest that the Roman 
Catholic Church possesses in Shanghai. The land was given 
by the Taotai as compensation for a building in the city which 
the Catholics alleged had belonged to them before they were 
expelled from China. It was built by Bishop de Besco : the 
foundation-stone was laid in 1849 > ft was opened in 1853. 
It is in the classic style, that of the Roman basilica. It is a 
large edifice ; the walls within are white. There are nave and 
side aisles, but no transepts. It is dedicated to St. Francis 
Xavier, of whom there is a painting over the high altar. 
There are numerous good paintings in the church, copies of 
works by old masters. There is a fine organ in the gallery. 
The number of converts connected with this church is very 

From this point we may return to the long street that we 
have traversed ever since leaving the French Quai de France, 
and continue along it to the Kiangnan Arsenal, passing a 
useless Chinese camp on the way. Near the arsenal are the 
new waterworks for the supply of the native city. Shanghai is 
the first Chinese city to have a water supply in foreign style. 

From the Kiangnan Arsenal we may walk or 'rickshaw all the 
way back by the Chinese Bund. If we have no wish, however, 
to go farther after leaving Tung-ka-doo Cathedral, we may go 
right down the street on which the church stands to the 
Chinese Bund, and so reach the French Settlement. 


Chinese Bund 

The Chinese Bund was made in 1894, after a great fire 
which destroyed five hundred ramshackle old Chinese houses. 
The Bund is policed and kept in order by the Chinese 
authorities. It is suitable for carriages and 'rickshaws. There 
are plenty of interesting things to be seen. First, the enormous 

Tower in Swatow Guild-House, Nantao 

crowds of boats on the river, on which there is, as always in 
great Chinese cities, a huge permanent floating population. 
Beggar-boats and fishing-boats are closely packed. Near the 
centre of the stream is the junk anchorage, tier on tier of them — 
plain Shanghai junks with brown oiled wood ; Foochow junks 
with high, gaily, and elaborately painted sterns, often laden 
with immense masses of " Foochow poles " slung at each side, 


Chinese Bund 

making it a nautical miracle how they steer; Ningpo junks, 
usually with black hulls and green and red painting on the 
upper parts. The Bund swarms with coolies. Here are 
important Chinese hongs, timber yards, bamboo oil, and 
pottery stores. One gains respect for the volume of purely 
native traffic. The doorways, gates, offices of these hongs are 
often very good. Endless photographs may be made. 

On the Bund, beyond the water-tower, is a splendid guild- 
house. Its immense white wall cannot be missed. A knock 

Chinese Bund— Women Washing 

at the wooden gates will usually bring the keeper ; it is the 
Jau Way Way Kway, a Cantonese guild-house. There is a 
fine, clean, flagged court ; the main building, containing the 
usual theatre, has a fine front. Two large flower-vases are 
carved in high relief on the walls. Passing under the theatre, 
we find another court, with the temple at the west end, and in 
the north-west corner a five-storied pagoda-like building, the 
Tien Ih Koh. The whole pile makes as good a photograph 
of Chinese architecture as any one need wish : the Temple 


Native City 

is the ideal of Chinese beauty. The shrine of Ti Wi is excel- 
lently carved ; the hanging lamps are specially noteworthy. 
Owing to the size of the entrance court, this guild-house 
affords the photographer an opportunity of getting a good 
picture of the facade of a characteristically Chinese buildings 

Another walk may be taken in Nantao, along the outside of 
the native city wall in the upper part of Nantao. Turn up by 
the French water-tower, or up any of the streets beyond it. 
Here those interested may see Chinese life — all kinds of 
industries, stables, even a pony market, with gardens and 

The circuit of the city walls may be made, and the south 
gate reached, whence return may be made by the west gate 
and Rue du Consulat. This is a long walk ; no one ought to 
attempt this without a Chinese guide or a foreign friend who 
knows the way. Crede experto. 


Sampan Woman 


(Route II) 

BEFORE making a visit to the native city, the first thing 
to do is to procure a guide. This is indispensable, and 
no map would enable a raw visitor to find his way about its 
tortuous alleys and narrow streets. The hotels will find guides 
for their guests. Those who have acquaintances among the 
business houses of Shanghai might ask for one of the Chinese 
staff. Native professional guides are generally to be found at 
the end of the Rue Mcntauban on the lookout for clients. 
They speak sufficient English, and are reliable. It is best to 
make a bargain with them first, as always in China. 

Some visitors and even residents never visit the city, on 
account of the dreadful smells they have heard about. But it 
is not so bad as all that. No doubt the proximity of the 
Foreign Settlements tends to drain life, enterprise, and business 

Native City 

out of it, but it has still 
a population of 152,249 
living in 27,843 houses, 
according to the latest 
native census made in 
the year 1900, and many 
interesting and beautiful 
trades are carried on. 
The odours are some- 
times not good, but they 
are not nearly so bad or 
numerous as is usually 
imagined, and ought 
not to daunt a traveller 
with any enterprise in 

The city forms the 
southern boundary of 
the French Settlement. 
It is almost circular in 
form ; the walls, of black 
brick, are three miles 
in circumference, with 
3,600 loopholes and 20 
towers or guard-houses 
for defence. Some of 
these are now temples. 
A ditch or fosse runs 
round the walls, 30 feet 
in width, the original 
width being 60 feet. 

The best way to see 
the city is to enter by 
the New North Gate 
(Sing Poh Mun), at the 
south end of the Rue 
Montauban. Note the 
scene crossing the 


New North Gate 

wooden bridge across the 
ditch. The bridge is 
always crowded, with water- 
carriers, sedans, bamboo- 
coolies, and general pas- 
sengers. Ramshackle huts 
cling to the walls ; stores 
of Chinese earthenware 
line the creek. Note the 
beggars with self-made 
sores and crippled limbs ; 
these are professionals, 
under a beggar-king. Shop- 
keepers may compound 
with him for immunity at 
so much a month. Inside 
the outer gate is what was 
called in mediaeval times 
the " inner bailey " for de- 
fensive purposes — a square 
enclosure, at the southern 
side of which is the actual 
New North Gate through 
the wall. We have now 
left the twentieth century, 
and gone back 4,000 years 
in time. The scene in- 
side the walls is no doubt 
very much like the scene 
inside a gate of Jerusalem 
in David's time. All is of 
the old, old world, which 
must appeal to any visitor 
interested in Biblical times. 
Directly the gate is 
passed there is a pictur- 
esque square where sedan 
chairs are manufactured. 


Native City 

An old guard-house has been converted into a temple; it is 
found immediately on the right. It is the Tsung Woo Day. 
There is an image of Waydoo (see " Drive to Bubbling Well") 
downstairs ; upstairs is an oblong apartment with an image of 
the Emperor Ye Fung of this dynasty, who was on the throne 

City Gardens — Dragon Gate 

when the temple was erected. On his left is a shrine to 
Kwangti (god of war), on his right to Midoo, and the San 
Quay, the Three Pure Ones, a Taoist trinity. A long, straight 
street leads from the east side of this square towards the 
centre of the city. This is the best street in the city. It is 
devoted to ivory, sandalwood, and fan shops. Very beautiful 
articles may be seen in process of manufacture — ivory gods, 


"Woo Sing Ding 

chop-sticks, chess-men, umbrella handles, etc., etc. There are 
shops for brass ware, Ningpo pewter, silks, silk tassels, 
porcelain. In summer-time, when the narrow street is canopied 
with blue cloth, it has the effect of a bazaar. Note that the 
streets are just wide enough for two sedan chairs to pass; 
they are paved with long flags of Ningpo stone laid longitu- 
dinally. China had wealth and enterprise when such pave- 
ments were laid down. 

A turn to the left at the end of this street along a 
creek side, then across a bridge to the right, leads to 
the famous tea-house, the Woo Sirig Ding, the City Temple 
and smaller shrines, along with the two characteristically 
Chinese gardens^ the East and West Gardens, which 1 are open 
free on the ist and 15th of the Chinese month ; at other times 
on payment of a small fee. The story is that the whole of 
these buildings and gardens were originally a palace built by 
an ambitious and wealthy mandarin, in the reign of Kiei 
Tsing, a.d. 1537. He was ambitious of having a palace as 
good as the emperor's. The scheme, however, came to the 
ears of the emperor, who violently disapproved, and the 
mandarin, to save himself, made his palace over to the city, 
which used it as temple, tea-house, and gardens for the benefit 
of the public. 

It will be sufficient to visit one of the gardens. The quaint 
rock-work, winding paths, arbours, curiously shaped doors and 
gateways, show how much can be made of a small space. Tea 
may be had, and excellent studies for the photographer are 
on every hand in this whole group of buildings. 

Next visit the tea-house, the Woo Sing Ding. It is a 
picturesque building on stone pillars in a pool, approached by 
zigzag bridges. Straight ones would be unlucky, as the 
Chinese believe that evil spirits travel along straight lines and 
are baffled by crooked ones. Hence curved roofs on Chinese 
houses, and the reason for one objection by Chinese to 
railroads and their lengths of straight line. Surrounding the 
pool are numerous picturesque tea-houses. The photographer 
will be in his element. The open ground round the pool is 
a fine study of Chinese life — dentists, doctors, toy-sellers, 


The "Willow-Pattern Tea-House 

cooks, jugglers are all busy. Near the pool are three bird- 
markets, with really fine shows of birds from the south. This 
tea-house is supposed to be the original of the tea-house on 
"willow-pattern" plates. Nowhere can a more thoroughly 
Chinese view be obtained than about this pool with the 
broken outlines of its gabled tea-houses reflected in the water. 

The Willow-Pattern Tea-House 

The , Vung Tsang Dien should next be visited ; it is 
dedicated to the god of scholars, called locally, Vung Tsang. 
His name is usually written Wenchang when romanised. He 
is the god of literature ; " a constellation," part of Ursa Major, 
is named after him; "the wheel of transmigration turned 
seventeen times the fate of Wenchang. His most distinguished 


The Vung Tsang- Dien 

metempsychosis was a snake, which revenged the wrongs done 
to his ancestors. He then met with Buddha, who forgave his 
sins, allowed him to throw off the serpent's coil and return as 
a man. He is one of a triad with Confucius and the god of 
war. It is said that Wenchang prevents the vicious, even 

In the Native City 

though learned, from obtaining an academic degree " (Du 

We are now close to the City Temple, in a maze of narrow, 
crowded streets, lined with shops, in which scrolls, brushes, 
compasses, spectacles, pottery, gambling implements, opium 
pipes, compasses, wooden scissors, birds, etc., etc., may be 
purchased. If we enter it by the Great East Gate, we pass a 


The Zung Wong Miao 

small shrine to So Waung (the god of snakes), or the snake-king 
with his attendants. " If a man finds a snake on his premises, 
he repairs to the snake-god's temple ; also rules out its tracks 
with manure. At the feast in the 5 th moon the people mark 
all little children's foreheads with the character for ' king ' 
and put yellow paint on their legs as a charm against snakes 
or centipedes" (Du Bose). 

We may, however, enter by the Temple of the Three 
Emperors, Sang Vong, or Sing Sen Dien. Sometimes they 
are called the Three Primordial Sovereigns, three Kings of 
Heaven, of Earth, of Men ; the length of their aggregate 
reigns was 18,000 years. Around the walls are sixty images — 
twenty-six on one side, thirty-four on the other. Each one of 
the sixty represents a year of the Chinese cycle, which is sixty 
years, not the endless time that Tennyson, in a well-known 
couplet, suggests. This temple is widely popular. On festival 
days it is hard to get round it, owing to the crowds of wor- 
shippers burning incense before the images, while the heat 
from the great furnace compels a rapid retreat if an attempt 
is made to pass it. Paper shoes representing silver sycee 
are burnt in it. 

We now enter the great City Temple, the Zung Wong 
Miao, built in 1537 under the circumstances to which I have 
alluded. There is a large central court, with an ancient 
incense burner and a very artistic detached shrine with upbent 
roof and good carving about it, which makes an excellent 
photographic subject. In the afternoon this court is a fair : 
one cannot but think of the buyers and sellers in the temple 
at Jerusalem (St. Matthew xxi. 12, 13). There are refreshment 
stalls, toy vendors, incense shops, and jugglers, who, by the 
way, are well worth seeing; their production of bowls, filled 
with water to the brim, from the stone floor is a marvellous 
performance, equal to the Hindoos' trick of the growing of 
the mango tree. 

The city god is in a building at the east end of the great 
central court. His name means king of the city of which 
he is the tutelary god. " Each of the 1,600 cities of China 
has its god, and the 100,000 market towns each claim a 


The Confucian Temple 

god. He has two assistants to help him to judge lawsuits 
in the other world." At festivals this temple is crowded ; the 
image is shrouded in curtains, so is not easy to see ; it is also 
surrounded by high wooden rails. 

There is a small court behind the great one, reached by 

Shrine, City Temple 

passing under the stage. Through this court is the nearest 
way to the next place of interest, the Confucian Temple. The 
streets en route are quiet and fairly clean, much given to 
clothing shops. On the way we pass the Kwangti Miao, the 
temple of the god of war. It used to be east of the City 
Temple, but was removed to its present site when the Catholics 
returned to China, and claimed the old temple as theirs by 

The Confucian Temple 

right of occupation before the expulsion of the Jesuits at the 
end of the eighteenth century. Kwangti is a most popular 
god. " He is worshipped twice a month in 1,600 state 
temples." The Guilds (see Bankers) often chose him as 
their patron. " He is said to have appeared in the heavens 
in 1856 to encourage the Imperial troops against the Tai- 
pings. He was a general who figured in the time of the 
Three Kingdoms, just after the commencement of our era " 

View in Native City 

(Du Bose). The ground in front of this temple is untidy, but 
the interior is clean enough, and does not appear to be much 
frequented, except by officials. 

Not far away, near the west gate, from which it is best 
reached by those who wish to see it only, is the Confucian 
temple, in a large walled area, bounded by a yellow wall, 
above which the high carved roofs of the various shrines 
present a very picturesque spectacle. There is a three-storied 
pagoda at one corner outside the enclosure, built some five 
years ago. There is plenty of open space, with pond and 


The Confucian Temple 

spirit wall in front of it. A good photograph may be taken 
from this point. The great wooden gates are usually closed. 
Inside them is a court of rough grass. Entrance is obtained 
by the smaller gate to the right. Crossing two open courts, 
we see the Ming Loong Dong, the shrine where the scholars 
from the contiguous school for the training of scholars worship. 
The gate-keeper, whom it is best to engage to go round with 
you, will then open a large pair of folding-doors. These 
admit us into the great court in front of the Kong-foo-tsoo 
Miao, the Confucian temple itself, which is called the Tien 
Zung Dien. Along the walls of the court are sheds, which 
contain tablets to the 3,000 disciples of Confucius ; the 
larger ones are to his seventy superior disciples. 

Inside the temple itself there is the severest simplicity. It 
is just a large, open-roofed hall, the timbers being decorated 
with paintings. The tablet of Confucius occupies the place of 
honour ; in front of it is a table and altar, with two plain 
metal candlesticks. There is no image. At each side of the 
hall are two subsidiary shrines. All else is bare. 

Externally there is no attempt to deify the great sage of 
China, who, born as long ago as 551 B.C., holds so tremendous 
a sway over a quarter of the human race. His grave in 
Shantung is still the greatest pilgrim resort on earth. There 
is much dispute as to whether the Chinese actually worship 
Confucius. The early Jesuit missionaries did not believe it, 
nor does Dr. Martin, in a recent letter to the North China 
Daily News. The Pope, however, decided against the 
Jesuits, and so lost China to the Catholic Church ; the mass 
of Protestant missionaries also agree with the Pope that they 
do. It certainly looks as if they did. There are about 1,600 
temples similar to this in the empire. Sacrifices are offered 
to him, scholars bow before his tablet, schoolboys worship 
him, the emperor worships him. The great annual sacrifice 
is offered in the night of the eleventh day of the fourth moon 
of the Chinese year in spring, the anniversary of his death. 
His birthday is celebrated in the autumn. This is not the 
place to give an account of Confucianism. It is sufficient to 
say that while not denying the existence of Shang-Ti, the 

The Confucian Temple 

aboriginal Chinese god of Heaven, whom the emperor still 
worships once a year, Confucius ignored him, sanctioned 
ancestor worship, and elaborated a system of morals which 
still rules the nation. 

Behind the chief temple is one to the father and mother of 

Opposite the front of the enclosure are three Confucian 
institutions — an orphanage and two refuges, one for old men 
and one for old women. 

Next to these is a handsome, well-kept building, the Vae 
Zee Kung, or the Emperor's Temple. Once a year the officials 
proceed to this temple to do obeisance before the emperor's 
tablet. It is hard to distinguish it from worship. I have not 
been able to gain access to this building. Near it is the most 
famous peach orchard in the city. On our way back we pass 
the city lieutenant's yamen. The two giants painted on the 
doors are the door gods, who were two ministers of state in 
the Tang Dynasty (ending a.d. 936). Their names are Way 
Tsu Kong and Ching Soh Pao. 

There is no need to visit the smaller temples in the city. 

The city may also be entered by the east gate from the 
suburb of Nantao. The warehouses and shops of the cotton 
or piece goods merchants are in this quarter, also a street 
wholly given up to the manufacture of idols in metal, wood, 
and plaster. 



(Route III) 

THIS walk offers an admirable opportunity of seeing China 
as it is, and as it has been for many ages. It is also a 
novelty for any one from the West to walk on a city wall at all. 
The circuit of the walls is between three and four miles, and 
can be done in one hour by going straight on, but two hours 

Slightly Congested 
Creek leading to the native city 

and a half, ought to be allowed for the excursion, if the 
temples en route are to be visited. 

The walls are not so very old. In a.d. 1554 a famous 
man named Koo Zong Li sent a memorial letter to the 
emperor, suggesting that walls should be built to protect the 
city from Japanese pirates. The emperor consented, and Fo, 
prefect of Sungkiang, built the walls. They had originally 
six gates, and a tower over the east gate only. In 1558 Loo 


City Wall 

Kung Zung built towers over other gates, which were called 
Vah Keun Dai, Tsz Sung Dai, Tsung Wa Dai (now turned 
into temples). There is a moat round the walls, which are of 
black brick, supported by a thick embankment of earth on the 
inside. It is really on this earth embankment that you walk, 
not on the wall itself, which is furnished with portholes 3,600 
in number. We may ascend it by any one of the gates, but the 
New North Gate (Sing Poh Mun) is the most convenient, at 
the end of Rue Montauban. Having passed through the outer 
and inner gates, turn to the right along a dirty lane, climb up 
the slope of earth, and you are on the walls. 

The general view of any native city from a height is gener- 
ally disappointing, presenting, as it does, an expanse of black 
tiles on the one-storied buildings. Domestic buildings do not 
run to height in China, but there are some good dwellings of the 
better sort abutting on the wall ; so that altogether the photo- 
grapher can get a few picturesque corners. The view of the 
busy streets of the French Settlement outside the walls is worth 
attention. One gets the impression that the whole population 
of China is always on the streets. 

After a quarter of a mile's walk we come to the Da Ching, 
once a guard-house or castle, now a temple. It is a very 
beautiful and picturesque building, and makes a splendid 
photograph from any point of view. Gardens and open spaces 
surround it ; at one corner there is a pool. From that side, 
with the pool in the foreground, it makes a very beautiful 
picture. To visit itj you must go down from the wall, and 
enter by side door. The building has four stories on one 
side and two on the upper side, where it abuts on the wall. 
On entering and passing through the porter's living-room, 
there is, at the end of a narrow passage, a ferocious-looking 
image of a black-faced warrior, General Chow, of the Chow 
Dynasty, about 1100 B.C. In the hall beyond this passage is 
a shrine containing the figure of Tsang Ti Sz, who, I am 
informed, is still, living as a famous Taoist priest. It is a 
case of apotheosis. To his right is a shrine to the king of 
snakes (see account of visit to City Temple). 

The main temple area is on the second storey, to which 


The Da Ching 

there is an entrance from the wall. Kwangti (god of war) 
occupies the principal place with his two attendants, Tz Tsang 
and Kway Bing. On the right is the image of the god of 
medicine, Li Zung Yang, one of the " Eight Immortals." 
" He was a graduate at Pekin and a mandarin, but retired 
to the mountains to search for immortality." On the left 






"|IA. %*>* 

. ^aMM ***% Mtfji^y'" 

' /ill * V ; " 

fcr- y 


Stone Carving on Roofs in City Gardens 
Three hundred years old 

of the god of war is Zung Wong, the tutelary deity of the 
city. There is a kong or tub-shaped incense burner, presented 
to the temple by the native staff of the Municipality of the 
Foreign Settlement. On the left of the entrance is the groom 
and charger of the god of war ; on the right his boatmen and 
boat. In the third storey is a large room, with a small shrine 
and pretty stained-glass windows. On the top floor — very 


The Ta Vung Leu 

unusual — are three gilt figures of the Taoist trinity, the Three 
Pure Ones ; on the left another trinity, Confucius in the centre, 
with two of the Eight Immortals, one of whom is Han Chung 
Li, who revives the dead with a fan. Sometimes he has a peach 
{symbol of immortality) in his hand. This trinity is much 
worshipped by scholars. 

Leaving this temple, we continue along the wall. The space 
inside becomes less inhabited, and is given up to numerous 
market gardens. Walled cities always had to have open spaces 
in them, to grow as much food as possible in times of siege. 
Notice in one of these gardens huge stone figures — horses, 
men, turtles, lions, of the same type as the Ming tombs at 
Nanking. From this point to the south gate the country 
outside and inside the walls is very open. Near the west 
gate the roofs of the Confucian Temple (see description of city, 
page 120) are discernible. Just before reaching the south 
gate, outside which is a flourishing mission of the American 
Southern Presbyterians, down on the level inside the walls, 
is the Tsi Ying An, a temple to the goddess of mercy. A 
little beyond the new south gate, again down on the level 
ground inside the wall, necessitating a detour to reach it, is 
the Dien Zung, the temple of the god of earth. From the 
south to the east gate the space inside the walls again 
becomes densely inhabited, on account of its proximity to 
the river. Outside the walls is the suburb of Nantao. Its 
dirty, crowded, wooden houses line the city ditch facing the 
walls, but yield excellent photographs. The great east gate is 
first reached, then the east gate leading out to the Chinese Bund. 

Between the east and north gates is the Ta Vung Leu, an 
old tower or castle converted into a temple. It is a most 
picturesque object for the photographer or painter. It is near 
the city water-tower. Part of the temple spans the path along 
the city wall. Along the passage are mural paintings of the 
Buddhist Hades. The temple covers a large part of the 
embankment and a large area inside the wall. The greater 
part of this pile of temple buildings down to the level is called 
the Dien Ih Tien Mun, the First Gate of Heaven. In it are 
shrines to the kitchen god, who "knows intimately the faults 


The Ta Vung Leu 

of the family, and takes account of their sins. He is wor- 
shipped at the new and full moon " (Du Bose). " His image 
is in every home, and the crackers and bombs are fired off on 
the twenty-fourth day of the twelfth moon, just about Chinese 
New Year's Day, when he ascends to heaven to make his 
report on the ' goings on ' of the family during the year." 

In the City Gardens— Chinese Architecture 
Sacred elephant on highest roof 

a good "send-off," he 
so that he may present 

has his lips 
a favourable 
The kitchen god's name is 

In order to give him 
smeared with sugar, 
report to the Pearly Emperor. 
Tsau Tsung. 

We now reach the north gate again, from which we descend 
to the French Settlement and the Rue Montauban. 



THE east side of the river opposite Shanghai is called 
Pootung. It is the name given to the whole peninsula 
between the Whangpoo and the sea. It is reached by sampan 
from any of the pontoons (fare each way, 5 cents). There is 
not much for the casual visitor to see. There is only one 
terrace of dwelling-houses and the Pootung Hotel. The 


whole of the foreshore for five miles from Tunkadoo to a point 
below the harbour limits is taken up with the wharves, go- 
downs, oil tanks, and various commercial establishments. The 
International Cotton Mill occupies a prominent place opposite 
the Settlement. In front of the mill is the Customs Signal 
Station, from which the arrival of all the shipping is signalled. 
If the vessel be from the south of the Yangtsze, the signal flags 
are on the south side of the mast ; if from the north, on the 

129 9 

Signal Station 

north side. Two guns are fired when a steamer or tender with 
mails enters the lower harbour limit. 

Mail Steamers from Europe or America are signalled by the 
national ensign over the company's flag, and a red pennant 
with three white crosses at the masthead or yardarm. 

Men-of-War. — The national ensign over letter C. 

Local Steamers. — The company's flag or letter D over the 
number (Marryat's Code). 

Behind the cotton mill is the American Cigarette Factory. 
At the point where the river takes a sharp turn to the east is the 

Irrigation Wheel 

shipbuilding and engineering yard of Farnham, Boyd & Co. If 
the visitor can obtain permission to visit these works, let him by 
all means do so. They are splendidly equipped with machinery. 
Nothing can be more interesting than to see the Chinese 
mechanics at work. They seem quite as skilful as engineers 
at home. On the west side of Boyd's is an old burial-ground 
for foreigners. The Seamen's Church has recently been pulled 



Should any one wish for a walk down the bank of the 
Whangpoo, he may land at the jetty by the Pootung Hotel, 
continue past the hotel into the villages, then turn to the left 
at the back of Boyd's works. But it is hardly worth it, except 
that a photographer might go for the sake of obtaining a 
picture of the Chinese method of fishing by means of a large 
square drop-net. 

The country behind presents few attractions. It is best 

Dragon Boat 

visited by houseboats up the creeks running into the country 
from the Whangpoo. The native population is largely Roman 
Catholic. There is a very fine church in the country east of 



THOSE who have a little time to spare and who wish to 
be able to boast that they have had a railway ride in 
China, and who, at the same time, wish to make some little 
acquaintance with the country round Shanghai, might take a 
railway journey to Woosung. 

The station is at the far end of the North Honan Road, and 
the way to it is either by the Soochow Creek side to the North 
Honan Road, then straight on ; or up North Szechuen Road 
to the Range Road, then turn to the left up Range Road 
till the head of the North Honan Road is reached. 

The Woosung Railway has had a chequered history. It was 
opened in 1876 as far as Chiangwan, the second station on 
the present line, and a few Shanghai men were the owners, 
Mr. G. J. Morrison being the moving spirit and engineer. 
But despite its popularity with the Chinese, the masses of 
whom always welcome any obvious improvement, it could not 
withstand the jealousy of hidebound officialdom. The viceroy 
objected that his consent had not been obtained, and the line 
was closed, and it is a blot on the memory of Sir Thos. Wade 
that he effected its sale to the Chinese at the end of the year. 
Thus in October, 1876, the Chinese paid Tls. 285,000 com- 
pensation for it, and proceeded at once to pull it up, after the 
last train had been run, an operation which was watched 
sorrowfully by the people as it made its last journey. They 
had no sympathy with the buttoned and satin-clad fools who 
ruled them. The unfortunate engine' and carriages were dis- 
membered and the parts carried over to Formosa, then in the 
possession of the Chinese. There they remained until 1883, 
when this old Woosung Railway plant was brought back to 
Shanghai. The present line was opened in September, 1898, 
officialism not venturing to interfere with it. It is very popular 
with the Chinese. The carriages are good, clean, and com- 
fortable, and are fitted with sliding panels of blue glass to 
shade the eyes during the glare of the summer. A time- 
table will be found in the local papers. 


Woosung 1 Railway 

Starting from Shanghai, we arrive at the Rifle Range Station 
in a few minutes ; close by is the new Rifle Range, owned by 
the Municipal Council, for the use of the volunteers. The oid 
range occupied the site of Range Road until six or seven 
years ago. Ample provision is made for all kinds of rifle 
practice, at ranges from ioo to 800 yards. Adjoining is the 
prospected new Recreation Ground, which is the brilliant con- 
ception of the trustees of the Recreation Fund. Seeing the 
congested state of the present Recreation Ground on the 
Bubbling Well Road, they wrote the Municipal Council on 
May 23rd, 1901, stating that they were in treaty for 100 mow 
(about 16 acres) of land for purposes of recreation. The 
Council at once entered into the scheme, with the splendid 
result that with Tls. 40,000 borrowed from the ever-flowing 
Recreation Fund, and a sum of about Tls. 17,000 contributed 
by the Council, an area of 258 mow (about 45 acres) between 
the new Rifle Range and the railway has been secured to the 
public for eyer. 

An agreement has just been made with Mr. J. W. Stuckey 
to prepare plans for the laying of it out. " Its exact distance 
from the Garden Bridge, via the North Szechuen and North 
Honan Roads, is 25 miles, or one mile farther than the present 
Recreation Ground on the Bubbling Well Road" (M. C. 
Report, 1901). 

The next station is Chiangwan, an unwalled town in which 
some good photographs may be taken. It has a ruined pailow, 
a small pagoda, and good creek scenes. The line runs mostly 
through paddy fields until Woosung Pier Station is reached. 
At the Pier Station there is the Woosung Hotel, where excel- 
lent tiffins and dinners are served. It is best, if possible, to 
write the day before and order a meal, if you intend spending 
the day there. You may enjoy a ride on a Chinese wheel- 
barrow to the village. If you are, however, just spending the 
afternoon, you may do one of two things. You may go to the 
old terminus by the creek and alight there. A good road has 
been made to the creek, over which is an excellent new wooden 
bridge, and the village on the other side is a typical Chinese 
village, with narrow streets, rough paving, many smells, and 



many dogs. You may, however, avoid the village, and continue 
along the Whangpoo side by a splendid new Bund. 

When Woosung was made a treaty port, it was anticipated 
that a new settlement would spring up, and a good deal of the 
heavy traffic would pass through it. The Bund was made, and 
the land laid out in squares, all ready for the building of offices 
and houses. So far this has not been realised ; but Woosung is 
improved, and the walk along the river is very fine. There is 

Foochow Junk with Cargo of Poles lashed to Side 

always a fleet of junks anchored there, among them Chinese 
war-junks, which may be compared to the foreign war-ships 
lying at anchor. 

The other plan is to go on to the new terminus near the 
lighthouse, which, with out-buildings and farm, makes a 
picturesque photograph. 

If you have time, by all means walk on to the old walled city 
of Paosan, or, as the local pronunciation has it, Pausa. 
The road along the shore of the Yangtsze is good as far as the 
Chinese fort, a huge enclosure with mud walls, which existed 



at the time of the conquest of Shanghai. It was around this 
fort and between it and Woosung that the Chinese had painted 
conical mud-heaps white, to make them resemble tents ; this 
was a brilliant idea of the Chinese military genius to make the 
British think a vast army was encamped there. But Sir Hugh 
Gough was not to be scared by painted mud. On June 16th, 
1842, he landed and took Woosung, and silenced the 134 guns 
in the fort. 

From the fort ascend to the top of the embankment erected 
by the Chinese to keep out the flood waters of the Yangtsze. 
The walk is a very pleasant one, and in about another mile 
you see the old city of Paosan. At one time it must have 
been on the river, for an old water-gate is visible. You may 
enter by the east gate and ramble about the old city ; there is 
a good gatehouse in the centre of it, also good creek scenes 
and very large ruined pailows. It is historically interesting. 
After having taken Woosung, Sir Hugh Gough advanced 
on Paosan, " to which he had heard that the governor of 
the province had fled, with a large number of troops.'' He 
had ordered Major-General Schoedde to move to the rear 
of the town, and to cut off the retreat of the Chinese, and 
when he arrived he found the major-general in possession, 
and the Chinese troops flying, with the civil population, in all 
directions. The siege of Paosan, therefore, is not one of the 
great sieges of history. 

The return to Woosung must be made by the same route. 

Jinrickshaws may be taken at Woosung for Paosan ; but 
as they are the "discards " of Shanghai, somewhat infirm, and, 
like the minstrel, " have seen a better day," they do not afford 
very comfortable riding ; on a hot day, however, they are 
better than nothing. 

It is a very good plan to take one's bicycle down to Woosung 
by train. 

. Those who enjoy walking would find it interesting to walk 
by the Whangpoo side to Woosung, along Broadway past 
the Point. 


Shanghai Junks 


VISITORS to Shanghai who are not pressed for time 
ought by all means to make a trip up country in a 
houseboat. It is a most restful and enjoyable holiday, and 
enables the visitor to see a very great deal of Chinese life and 
scenery. The innumerable creeks of this province, often so 
very beautiful, walled cities, market towns, villages, bridges, 
methods of irrigation and agriculture, all afford ceaseless 

There are two classes of houseboat, foreign and native, 
the former an adaptation of the latter. The native boat 
is the cheaper, the foreign boat infinitely more comfort- 
able. A foreign houseboat has one central cabin, with bunks 
at the sides for two ; there is often also another small cabin, 
and most of the boats are very comfortably fitted up. The 
hire of a foreign boat is about Tls. 5 or Tls. 6 a day ; of a native 
boat, $2'5o or $3; one or two of the hotels have boats, and 
some private owners will let theirs for hire. The best way to 


Houseboat Trip 

procure a boat is to advertise, stating the number of days the 
boat will be required. 

As to preparations for a trip, the boat, wherever hired, will 
have its own crew, under a captain or loadah ; the traveller 
will need a boy and cook. All provisions have to be 
taken, as only chicken, eggs, fish, and a few vegetables and 
fruits can be procured up country. A good plan is to con- 
tract with the cook to do the catering at a fixed sum a day. 
He can do it well on $i or $1*50 a head: this includes 
ordinary plain cooking ; wines and mineral waters are extra. 
A supply of drinking-water must be taken, also coal for cook- 
ing and for the stove in winter. The cost per day, including 
hire of boat, will be about $12 as a minimum; a houseboat 
trip is therefore no dearer than staying at a hotel. With a 
native boat the cost is less. This is not a guide to the 
country round Shanghai that may be visited by houseboats, 
but a few notes are appended to give a stranger some idea of 
the places that may be visited. 




By H. Du Flon Hutchison 

3, 5, 7, io, 15, 18, and 20 Days' Trips 


First Day. Through Naziang to Kading. 

Second Day. Explore Kading, a city ruined by Taipings; 
extensive walls, fine Confucian temple, endless ruins 
of temples, wharves, bunding, pailows, dwellings. 

Third Day. Return. 


First Day. Everything on board houseboat and leave 
Shanghai in tow of boat train. 

Second Day. Evening, arrive at Hangchow Foreign Settle- 
ment and anchor. 

Third Day. All day at Hangchow. Hire a native covered 
boat, and, taking lunch with you, go and see the West 
Lake or Si Wu, cross by another boat to Lin Yin Sz, 
and walk up to the temple and to see the rock sculptures. 

Fourth Day. Visit the city of Hangchow, see the medicine 
shops and the live deer in them, also the Mahomedan 
mosque and the city temple ; come back, or go via the 
upper water and the north gate, passing over the mud 
slide or lock between the upper and lower waters. 
Leave by tow for Shanghai, arriving there next day. 

Fifth Day. Arrive at Shanghai. 


Houseboat Trips 



To see the Hangchow Bore in Spring or Autumn 

First Day. Tow to Hangchow. 

Second Day. At Samun, leave the tow and yuloh or sail to 

Third Day. See bore at Haining. 
Fourth Day. Back to Haining and tow. 
Fifth Day. Shanghai, arrive. 



Shanghai, Hangchow, Soochow, and Back 

First to Fourth Days as II., but leave Hangchow by Soochow 

boat train. 
Fifth Day. Arrive Soochow. See two old pagodas, twin 

pagodas, beamless temple, Tiger Hill pagoda, City 

Temple, yamen, gardens, etc. Before leaving Shanghai 

buy " Beautiful Soo," by Dr. Du Bose. 
Sixth Day. Donkey or chair ride through city ; can visit 

cotton mill by presenting card. 
Seventh Day. Leave about 5 p.m. by boat train for 

Shanghai, arriving early morning eighth day. 



Shanghai, Hangchow, Soochow, Ta Hoo (Great Lake), Soochow, 

and Back 

First Day to Fifth. Same as IV. After arriving at 
Soochow, go straight on to Modo (Motu) and Sz-ke and 
on to the Ta Hoo. 

Sixth Day. Spend morning on the Ta Hoo. Grand 
scenery on the lake, which is 40 by 40 miles ; its shores 


Houseboat Trips 

mountainous. Leave Ta Hoo midday, arrive Soochovv 
in evening or morning of seventh day. 
Seventh Day may be spent in Soochow, Leave same even- 
ing for Shanghai. 
N.B. — If Soochow has already been visited, the traveller 
may go straight on to the Ta Hoo, arriving in the 
afternoon of the second day. This will give him four 
days on the Ta Hoo. Those who must be back 
inside seven days must watch the weather and wind, 
or they might be delayed. In any case, they may 
sail across to the beautiful island of Si Dung Ding, or 
coast down the Dung Dung Ding peninsula (on the 
south of Motu). 



Shanghai, Hangchow, Soochow, Kwangfoo, Ta Hoo (Great 
Lake), Soochow, and back 

First and Second Days as II. 

Third Day Hangchow, Siwu (West Lake), Lin-yin-sz. 

Fourth Day. Hangchow city, North Gate, etc. 

Fifth Day. Leave for Soochow. 

Sixth Day. Arrive Soochow and proceed to Kwangfoo. 

Seventh Day. Arrive Kwangfoo (temple, pagoda, gardens); 

go on to Tahoo. 
Eighth Day. Return to Soochow. 
Ninth and Tenth Days. Soochow. 
Tenth Day. Leave for Shanghai. 



Hangchow, Soochow, Ta Hoo 

First and Second Days as II. 

Third and Fourth Days. Hangchow. Leave fourth day for 


Houseboat Trips 

Fifth Day. Soochow. Go to Sz-ke on the Ta Hoo. 
Sixth Day. Cross Ta Hoo to Kwangfoo. 
Seventh Day. Kwangfoo. 
Eighth Day. Back to Soochow. 

Ninth and Tenth Days. Soochow, and leave in evening of 
tenth day for Shanghai. 



Shanghai, Hangchow, Soochow, Ta Hoo, Wusieh, and back 

First to Fifth Days as VII. 

Sixth and Seventh Days. Sail up Ta Hoo from Sz-ke to 

Wusieh. Coast scenery very fine. 
Eighth and Ninth Days. Wusieh ; great silk centre. 
Ninth Day. Leave Wusieh by boat train for Soochow. 
Tenth Day. Soochow, and leave in evening for Shanghai. 



Soochow, Wusieh, Chinkiang 

First to Ninth Days as VIII. 

Tenth Day. Leave Wusieh for Chinkiang. 

Eleventh or Twelfth Day. Arrive Chinkiang. 

Thirteenth Day. Chinkiang. 

Fourteenth Day. Start for Wusieh. 

Fifteenth Day. Wusieh boat train for Soochow. 

Sixteenth Day. Soochow. 

Seventeenth Day. Soochow boat train to Shanghai. 



Shanghai, Hangchow, Soochow, Kwangfoo, Ta Hoo, Wusieh, 

and back 

First Day. Leave for Hangchow. 
Second Day. Arrive at Hangchow. 


Houseboat Trips 

Third, Fourth and Fifth Days. Hangchow and neighbourhood. 

Sixth Day. Tow to Soochow. 

Seventh and Eighth Days. Soochow. and neighbourhood. 

Ninth Day. To Kwangfoo. 

Tenth and Eleventh Days. Cross Tahoo from Kwangfoo to 

Twelfth Day. Wusieh. 
Thirteenth Day. Wusieh, and leave for Shanghai via 

Fifteenth Day. Arrive Shanghai. 



Shanghai, Hangchow, Soochow, Kwangfoo, Wusieh, Chinkiang 
and back 

First to Eleventh Day. As in X. up to twelfth day, then to 

Chinkiang : yuloh and sail. 
Thirteenth and Fourteenth Days. Chinkiang ; arrive fourteenth 

Fifteenth Day. Chinkiang. 

Sixteenth and Seventeenth Days. Back to Wusieh. 
Eighteenth Day. Wusieh to Soochow. 
Nineteenth Day. Soochow to Shanghai. 



Shanghai to Feng-wan-shan 

Friday. Leave Shanghai ; yuloh or sail via Jessfield. 
Saturday Night. Feng-wan-shan. 
Sunday Night. Leave Feng-wan-shan. 
Monday. Arrive Shanghai vid Siccawei. 




PARTICULARS as to the principal churches will be 
found in other places in this work. The following are 
the lists of services : — 


Church of the Holy Trinity (The Cathedral) 

Sundays: n a.m. and 6 p.m. Sunday School, 3 p.m. 

Week Days : Morning at 8 ; Afternoon at 3. 

Holy Communion at 8 a.m., also at mid-day service 

High festivals, mid-day service ; Wednesdays, 6 p.m. 
During Lent, Morning Prayer at 11 a.m. Saints' Days as 


Chaplain — Rev. A. T. Walker, B.A. 

Union Church, Soochoui Road 

Sundays : 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. Sunday School, 3 p.m. 
Lord's Supper, first Sunday in the month. 
Prayer Meeting, Wednesdays, 6 p.m. 
Christian Endeavour Society : Fridays, 6 pm. 
Literary and Social Guild : fortnightly, Wednesdays. 
Boys' Brigade : Tuesdays, 6.15 p.m. 
Singing Class : Wednesdays, 6 p.m. 

Minister — Rev. C. E. Darwent, M.A. 



Church of Our Saviour, Broadway 

Sundays : n a.m. and 6 p.m. 

High Festivals : Communion, 8 a.m. 

Minister — Rev. F. James. 

Baptist Church, Masonic Hall 

Sundays : n a.m. and 6 p.m. Sunday School, 3 p.m. 
Wednesdays : 6 p.m. 

Deutsche Evangelische Kirche (German Evangelical Church), 
Whangpoo Road 

Sundays : 11 a.m. 

Pastor— Rev. F. Boie. 

Seamen's Mission, Broadway 
Sundays : 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. 

Chaplain — Rev. H. Newcomb. 


St. Joseph's Church, Rue Montauban, French Settlement 

Sundays at 6, 7, 8, and 10 a.m., and 4 p.m. 
Daily : 6 and 7.30 a.m. 

Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Nanzing Road, Hongkew 

Masses at 6, 7.30, and 10 a.m. Benediction at 4 p.m. 

Week days : Masses at 6.30 and 8 a.m. on the first Friday of 

every month ; and 6 p.m., Benediction of the Blessed 



Mahommedan Mosque, Chekiang Road 

Jewish Synagogue, 18, Peking Road 

Missions in Shanghai 

Shanghai is the greatest missionary centre in China, repre- 
sentatives of all the leading Protestant Societies being found 
here, as well as Roman Catholics. It is also the centre of a 
vast religious propaganda, which by circulating the Scriptures, 
by tracts and books published in Chinese on every subject 
under the sun, gives the people the results of Western know- 
ledge in their own tongue. A Chinaman can obtain books on 
religion, arithmetic, Roman history, horticulture, geometry — 
indeed, on any subject. There is no place in the world 
that means so much for the future of China as Shanghai. 
No one ought to leave without having seen, if possible, at least 
one of the numerous missions. There are about two thousand 
church members in the Protestant communions of Shanghai, 
some thousand adherents, and about one hundred missionaries, 
whose work is very varied — evangelistic and educational. They 
are always pleased to show visitors their work. Those who 
wish to see work in the native city would find the missionaries 
very willing to take visitors with them to their chapels. 

It is quite impossible to give a full history and detailed 
account of all the missions in Shanghai : the following 
particulars must serve. I have taken them from " A Short 
Report of Protestant Mission Work in Shanghai " for 1898, 
which appeared in the North China Herald ^of March 13th, 1899. 
Progress has been made since then, but the figures are 
sufficiently accurate, allowing for the interruption of mission 
work by the Boxer outbreak in 1900, and I have supplemented 
them with other information. 

1. London Missionary Society 

The headquarters of this mission are in Shantung Road, 
slightly south of the Foochow Road crossing. 

Dr. Medhurst and Dr. Lockhart were the first Protestant 
missionaries in Shanghai, arriving from Chusan in 1843. Dr. 
Medhurst was a brilliant man and scholar, and the father of 
Sir Walter Medhurst, late H.B.M. Consul. Dr. Lockhart 

145 10 


founded the Shantung Road hospital in the mission com- 
pound in 1846, which is now leased to a committee. 
Dr. Muirhead landed in 1847, and baptised 1, 60c persons 
during his fifty-three years in Shanghai. 

The mission work consists of preaching to some 2,000 
people, and holding 15 services each week. There are 400 
members, besides 15 out-station members, and the 7 day schools 
are attended by 200 scholars ; a new College has been 
erected in Hongkew. 

2. American Presbyterian Mission 

The centre of this mission, also its press, warehouse, 
and store, are in the Peking Road, while the printing works 
are now near the Rifle Range. Extensive work is carried on 
at the south gate of the city. The mission commenced 
work in 1848, the first house was built at the south gate in 
1858, the Press in 1874, and the Lowrie Memorial Chapel in 
the Peking Road in 1896. 

There are 3 native churches with some 285 members, by 
whom the pastors' salaries are paid. There are 2 boarding- 
schools in Shanghai, and 2 in the country, also 9 day schools 
in Shanghai ; all these having a total of 300 pupils. The 
Press printed 45,000,000 pages in 1898. 

3. Church Missionary Society 

The headquarters are in the Range Road, and one of 
its street chapels, the one situated about half-way up the 
Nanking Road, is very conspicuous and readily visited. There 
is daily preaching, and there are four enquirers' classes. The 
Anglo-Chinese School in the Range Road has about 100 pupils, 
and is self-supporting. There are 2 girls' and 2 boys' schools, 
also Gleaners' Unions for men and women. 

4. Southern Methodist (U.S.A.) Board of Foreign Missions 

The premises of this mission are in the Quinsan Road 
with a large establishment in the Thibet Road under the 



Southern Methodist Women's Board of Missions. The feature 
of this mission is the splendid Anglo-Chinese College in the 
Quinsan Road, with 180 students. There are 13 day schools 
with 384 pupils, 2 girls' boarding-schools, 4 Epworth Leagues 
with 180 members, and the Y.M.C.A. and Anti-Opium 

The College was opened in 1883, and the work begun in 
1849. In Thibet Road, at the McTyere Home, the mission 
has a first-class boarding-school, with a church, the spire of 
which is visible from the Recreation Ground, and it is often 
mistaken for a church intended for the use of foreigners. 

5. Women's Union Mission 

Bridgman Home and Stevenside, on the French Siccawei 
Road, are the homes of the ladies of this mission. 

The Margaret Williamson Hospital, for women only, belongs 
to this mission, and in 1898, 36,482 prescriptions were dis- 
pensed there. There is a boarding-school at the Bridgman 
Home, with 30 boarders ; there are also four day schools and 
a church with 80 members. 

6. Foreign Christian Mission 

It has churches in Hanbury Road and at Yangtszepoo, and 
at several out-stations. The work, which comprises evangelistic, 
scholastic, and medical branches, extends as far as Tsung-ming 
island. There are four day schools with 70 pupils. 

7. Seventh Day Baptist Mission 

The headquarters are at St. Catherine's Bridge, beyond the 
west gate. There are 2 boarding-schools with 35 pupils, and 
4 day schools with 36 pupils. Medical work is carried on, and 
there are 48 church members. 

8. American Southern Baptist Mission 

The missionaries reside at the new Rifle Range. The 
mission was founded in 1847 by the well-known Dr. Yates, 



author of a grammar of the Shanghai dialect, and has two 
churches, one at the old north gate and the other at the 
Rifle^Butts, and a membership of n8. The boys' school has 
35 pupils and the girls' 30. 

9. American Protestant Episcopal Mission 

This mission occupies a beautiful site at Jessfield (see account 
of Bubbling Well Road). 

St. John's College is a very complete residential scholastic 
establishment. It has a large staff of teachers and over 
200 students. There are 7 churches with a membership 
of over 500 ; there is also a girls' school, an orphanage, and 
a training home for women. 

Medical work is a prominent feature of this mission, carried 
on at St. Luke's Hospital, Hongkew. In 1898, in the men's 
wards, 20,323 cases were treated, 525 in hospital and 19,798 
outside and in the dispensary; also 117 major and 592 minor 
surgical operations were performed. 

The Church of the Saviour, Hongkew, belongs to this 

10. China Inland Mission 

This mission has its extensive headquarters in Woosung 
Road, but does not carry on mission work in Shanghai. 

11. Roman Catholic Missions 

Institution of the Holy Family, 1 1, Woochang Road. 
Institution of St. Joseph, 24, Rue Montauban. 
Procure des Lazaristes, Rue Laguerre. 
Procure des Missions Beiges, 5, Minghong Road. 
Procure des Missions Etrangeres, Quai de France. 
Spanish Augustinian Procuration, 5, Yangtszepoo Road. 
Siccawei Observatory, orphanage, schools, printing and pub- 
lishing house, etc. 

N.B. — All these missions have a large number of preaching 
stations in the settlements and city. 



The following societies also have their headquarters for 

China in Shanghai : — 

American Bible Society, 14, Kiukiang Road. 

British and Foreign Bible Society, 13, Kiukiang Road. 

China Tract Society, Depository, t 8, Peking Road. 

Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge 
among the Chinese, Boone Road. The publications of 
this society have immense influence over the ruling 
classes and literati of the Empire. The reading of 
its publications led to the issue of the famous reform 
edicts of the emperor in 1898. 

12. Missionary (Protestant) Printing and Publishing 

Presbyterian (U.S.A.), 18, Peking Road. 
Methodist (U.S.A.), 10, Woosung Road. 

This is only the briefest summary of the work being done 
in Shanghai for the Chinese. In addition there are organisa- 
tions of all kinds connected with the above societies, and the 
translation work done by the missionaries is enormous. 

An enquiry into the facts as to missions, and a visit to the 
stations so easily accessible as the L.M.S. in Shantung Road, 
the Methodist (U.S.A.) in Quinsan Road and Thibet Road, and 
of the Episcopalians at Jessfield, ought to convince the most 
prejudiced anti-missionary visitor that a mighty work is being 


The Shanghai Public School. — This is the only public school 
in Shanghai for foreign children. It was founded in 1886. 
The school is situate in Hongkew, at the corner of the 
Chapoo and Boone Roads. It belongs to the Municipal 
Council, which appoints a committee of five ratepayers to 
manage it. The school is open to all classes of children. 
There are three departments — boys', girls', and infants' or 
kindergarten. The course of study is based on the curriculum 



for the Cambridge local examinations. A high school has 
recently been formed for more advanced work. Drawing, 
painting, singing, and needlework are well taught ; French 
and Chinese are extra. Information as to the fees may be 
obtained from the secretary or from the headmaster. There 
are various scholarships and prizes. The school has about two 
hundred pupils. There is an athletic club, library, and 
museum, to which the headmaster will always be glad to receive 

The £cole Municipale is in the Rue Montauban, in the French 

The Deutsche Schule (German School) has a fine new build- 
ing next to the German Church in Whangpoo Road. Apply 
to the German pastor for terms. It is mainly for German 
children, but a certain proportion of children of other 
nationalities are admitted. 

Shanghai also possesses a few good private schools. 

The Thomas Hanbury School^in Boone Road, owes its exist- 
ence to the munificence of Sir Thomas Hanbury. It was 
established for the education of Eurasian children, and has 
done an incalculable amount of good. It is supported by fees 
and subscriptions. There are boarders and day pupils. 

Schools for Chinese 

Schools for the education of the Chinese in Western know- 
ledge and English are multiplying rapidly. A visit to one or 
more of these would be of great interest. 

There are the various missionary colleges, of which the 
chief are : — 

St. John's College, Jessfield. 
The Anglo-Chinese College in Quinsan Road. 
The Anglo-Chinese School in Range Road. 
The London Mission College in Li Hongkew. 
Other flourishing schools for Chinese, due to foreign and 
Chinese enterprise, are : — • 

The Ellis Kadoorie School in Park Road. — This school was 
founded in 1902 by Mr. Ellis Kadoorie, a merchant of 


Hongkohg and Shanghai, for the education of Chinese. It is 
in Park Road (first turn to the right after passing the Horse 
Bazaar on Bubbling Well Road). 

The Cantonese School in the Ningpo Road (a new Chinese 
building on the north side of the road). 

The headmasters would be pleased to show visitors over the 

A Chinese public school will shortly be erected on the 
North Szechuen Road Extension, near the Rifle Range. This 
school is the outcome of the idea that, as the Chinese pay so 
large a portion of the taxes, they have a right to have some 
educational advantages provided for them. The Council has 
provided for the site, and wealthy Chinese, such as Chun Fai 
Ting and the late Tong Kidson, and others, are responsible 
for a donation of Tls. 30,000 for the building. 


The Masonic body is a very large and influential one in 
Shanghai. According to Gratton's " Freemasonry in Shanghai 
and North China," there was a " warrant granted to the 
Northern Lodge of China, No. 570, E.C.," on December 27th, 

The " first English Mark Masters' Lodge " was held on 
December 15th, 1854. From the middle of the Sixties 
Masonry made rapid advances. That little was done during 
the Fifties was due to the disturbed state of the country. 

The first meetings were held in a house of Chinese con- 
struction in Church Road (now Kiangse Road), opposite the 
present Cathedral compound, and next in a small bungalow in 
Foochow Road. 

The first lodge-room was in Nanking Road, and is first 
mentioned in 1855. In 1856 this was sold, and the old 
second Masonic Hall was erected in Canton Road. This, 
becoming inconveniently small, was sold, and the present third 
Masonic Hall on the Bund was planned. The, foundation- 
stone was laid with full Masonic ceremonies on July 3rd, 1865, 
and the building was dedicated on September 27th, 1867. (For 


further details as to the hall, see description of walk on the 

The Masonic Charity Fund is an important institution 
in Shanghai ; administering relief, maintaining bursaries or 
scholarships in the public school, and so on. Full particulars 
may be found in "Gratton." 

The Masonic body has taken a prominent part in the most 
striking public functions in Shanghai, such as the Diamond 
Jubilee of Queen Victoria. 

The " North China Desk Hong List" contains full lists of 
the lodges and members. 

Theatres and Places of Entertainment 

The Lyceum Theatre is situated in the Museum Road, with 
its stage entrance on the Yuen-ming-yuen Road. It is close 
to H.B.M.'s Consulate, and is most easily approached from 
the Soochow Road. This theatre has been newly fitted up 
and decorated, and is in every way suitable for its purpose. It 
is the only theatre in the East high enough for the stage scenery 
to be lifted up to the flies ; in all others it has to be rolled up. 

Very early in the history of the settlement attempts at 
dramatic art were made by the Amateur Dramatic Club, 
which, as early as 1850, performed in a godown (warehouse). 
Unfortunately, the records of this society (the A.D.C.) were 
burnt in 1850, so information about early times is scanty. 
However, in 1867 a wooden theatre was built in Minghong 
Road. This theatre had a short career, being burnt to the 
ground on March 2nd, 187 1. 

We learn what the next step was from a petition of the 
trustees of the Lyceum Theatre in H.B.M.'s Supreme Court, 
January 14th, 1903. The trustees ask for relief in the matter 
of the trust. They state that "On May 20th, 1872, a public 
meeting of foreign ratepayers was held, and a scheme was 
approved for the raising of a fund in order to purchase a plot 
of ground in a convenient part of the Foreign Settlement, and 
to erect thereon a substantial insurable brick theatre." 

The scheme provided the necessary funds by debentures. 

i5 2 

Public Gardens 

The money was easily raised, and the present theatre was 
opened the following year. The public of Shanghai is the 
ultimate owner, and may now be said to possess it. As 
Shanghai has increased in foreign population, the number of 
professional companies visiting the settlement has increased. 
The building is occupied by them practically from February 
to May. 

Extract from " The History of tlie New Lyceum Theatre, 1874 
to 1898," by Geo. R. Corner (in MS.) 

" The wooden theatre in the Minghong Road having been 
burnt on March 2nd, 187 1, the then Committee of the Amateur 
Dramatic Club issued a prospectus for the building of a new 
theatre to be called ' The New Lyceum Theatre,' for which 
they proceeded to raise the sum of Tls. 21,675 by debentures, 
bearing interest at 8 per cent. ; and Tls. 3,750, on preference 
debentures at 5 per cent, interest. This was duly carried 
out, and the new theatre was opened on January 27th, 1874." 

The Lyceum Theatre is the only building in Shanghai really 
devoted to the entertainment of foreigners. 

Occasionally travelling companies of entertainers occupy the 
Masonic Hall. 

A list of Chinese theatres will be found on page xy. 

Public Parks and Gardens 

Public Gardens 

(Near the Garden Bridge, with greenhouses on the opposite side of 
the road) 

A short account of the history of the Gardens will be found 
in the section on the Bund. The very utmost use has been 
made of the small space : the lawns, shrubberies, flower-beds, 
and paths are well laid out. There are two fountains — one with 
railings around it, beautiful with roses in May; the other, 
at the south end of the gardens, with two terra-cotta figures 
forming the body of the fountain. 


Recreation Grounds 

Travellers who visit Shanghai in early spring should look 
out for the giant magnolias in bloom ; they will also see a few 
flowers rare in Europe, and some not to be seen there at all. 

The Town Band plays in the band-stand at 5 p.m. in the early 
summer; at 9 p.m. in July, August, and early September, when 
Shanghai comes out to enjoy the cool south breeze and listen to 
the music. The view from the Garden Point is always pleasant 
and interesting : river craft of all kinds can be studied and 

The Recreation Ground 

This is what the name implies — a piece of ground wholly 
given up to recreation. It will be found on the left, one mile 
up the Nanking Road. 

The footpaths are well kept, and the grass, the finest stretch 
of sward in the Far East, is open to the pedestrian. As large 
a variety of games may be seen here being played at the same 
time as anywhere in the world — cricket, tennis, golf, baseball, 
etc., etc. 

Five o'clock in the summer and Saturday afternoons are the 
best times to visit. The public may use the inner mud course 
for riding, but not the outer grass course. Carriages may be 
driven in as far as the pavilions. 

New Recreation Ground 

A new park or recreation ground has been acquired adjacent 
to the Rifle Range. It may be reached by continuing along 
the North Honan Road. The Rifle Butts Railway Station 
adjoins it. It is at present being laid out from the designs of 
Mr. J. W. Stuckey. About 258 mow of land will be included 
in the park, an invaluable addition to the open spaces of 

The Recreation Fund Trustees have again been the prime 
movers in the matter, lending the Council Tls. 40,000. The 
Council has entered most heartily into the scheme. The 
park is 2 1 miles from the Garden Bridge, vid North Honan 


Shanghai Library 

Hongkew Park 

Between Boone Road and Quinsan Roads. This is a mere 
playground for children. 

The Chinese Gardens 

(8 mow in extent on the Soochow Road) were opened in 
1890 for the benefit of the Chinese of the settlement. 

Chinese Gardens 

Chang Su Ho's Gardens, on the Bubbling Well Road, are 
very popular. There is a handsome hall (Arcadia) and 
Assembly Room in foreign style. Refreshments may be 
obtained. In the summer there are frequent displays of 
Chinese fireworks, which are well worth seeing. Under new 
management all kinds of attractions are now being provided, 
making these gardens a Shanghai " Earl's Court." There is 
a water chute, cycling track, etc. 

Yu Yuen Gardens. — On the Cross Road joining the Bubbling 
Well and Sinza Roads. Admission. 10 cents. These gardens 
are beautifully arranged in Chinese style, with rock-work, lily- 
ponds, kiosks, curious shaped doors and gateways. There is 
a large central hall, where refreshments are served in foreign 
and Chinese fashion. Excellent photographs and paintings 
may be made in these gardens. 

Shanghai Library 

The Shanghai Library was founded in the year 1849 in a 
very unpretentious way. One of the daily papers of March 23rd, 
1893, says that "A list was sent round asking for support 
towards the formation of a Book Club, and on this slender 
foundation has been built up the fine library that exists.'' 

It was in this way that institutions which have become 
of great importance to the Settlement were started, by half a 
dozen people meeting together on the Bund, in the Club, or at 
the dinner table. 

The Library has always been under most efficient manage- 

Chinese Festivals 

ment. The selection of books is extremely good. Among its 
12,000 volumes are all standard books of reference, and all 
new notable books of travels and science, with novels. It is 
doubtful whether any place in the world has so large a number 
of books in its public library per head of the population 
as Shanghai. Supposing Shanghai has now 4,000 English- 
speaking people ; this gives 3 volumes per head. No city 
in the West has anything like that number. There can hardly 
be 4,000,000 books in the public libraries of London, including 
the British Museum — that gives two-thirds of a volume per 
head. I name this because it gives the lie to the ridiculous 
taunt that people in the Treaty Ports are a set of brainless 

In 1892 a change was made in the working of the Library. 
It was thrown open as a Reading Room to the public from 
9 a.m. to 7 p.m. daily, the Municipal Council making a grant 
of Tls. t,ooo per annum. A large collection of the best 
magazines and reviews is kept. 

The Library is now housed in the Town Hall, Nanking 

The subscription is $16 per annum. 

Open, 9 to 12 noon and 4 to 7 p.m., for exchange of books ; 
Saturdays, 9 to 1 p.m. As a Free Public Reading Room it is 
open daily, from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. ; Sundays, 10 to 1 p.m. and 
2 to 6 p.m. 

Chinese Festivals 

An opportunity is afforded the visitor to Shanghai of having 
an occasional glimpse of religious festivals. The photo- 
grapher, if he happens to be in the place at the time and is 
on the look out, has a good chance of excellent pictures. 

I give only the festivals that, as far as my observation goes, 
are obvious to the most casual visitor. 

Chinese New Year. — Generally in February, so that as a 
rule the Chinese months (moons) are one behind ours, our 
second month (February) being the Chinese first moon. Note 
the streets at China's New Year's Eve. Business very brisk ; 
temples, theatres, eating-houses thronged ; shops full of New 


Chinese Festivals 

Year's decorations, paper flowers, etc., etc. On the morning of 
New Year's Day the streets are very quiet ; Chinese coolies dis- 
tribute visiting cards ; presents being carried by coolies, who 
have them on red trays. In the afternoon the Chinese turn 
out in their most gorgeous attire, and the Nanking Road is well 
worth a visit. 

The Feast of Lanterns. — First moon, fifteenth day ; a fixed 
feast. Visit the Ningpo Joss-house, in the French Settlement ; 
it is gorgeous with lanterns. 

The Feast of Tsing Ming. — A movable feast, from the 
end of March to the middle of April. One of the three 
principal festivals of China. "Celebrated on the 106th 
day after the shortest day, the fifteenth after the vernal 
equinox ; it may be called the Feast of the Dead. Immense 
numbers of people worship and sacrifice at the graves of 
their ancestors. Originally an act of remembrance of the 
dead ; it is now worship, and an attempt to conciliate their 
spirits. The Chinese, if away from home, endeavour to return 
to keep this feast. The custom of eating fruit and cakes at the 
graves is the result of incorporating the Hao-chih, or cold 
food festival, which fell on the previous day, with Tsing 
Ming " (North China Daily News). 

The country is well worth a visit on this day; there are 
people at every grave, each of which has a stick with white 
paper streamers on it. There is a procession from the north 
to the west gate of the city, or vice versa, in the afternoon 
of the day ; the road to Loongwha Temple is crowded. 
Photographers must be careful. The Chinese at such times 
do not like their processions to be photographed. The 
Taotai generally issues a request to foreigners not to drive 
to Loongwha on that day. In spite of that, some do. 

The Dai Wong Festival. — This is in the middle of April. 
A great procession of two or three thousand persons starts 
from the Dai Wong Temple on the Sinza Road about 9 a.m. 
This is very interesting. The image of Dai Wong, immense 
paper dragons, genii's banners, etc., are borne along; paper 
flowers, food, fruits, are carried as offerings. The par- 
ticipators in the procession are often gorgeously dressed in 


Chinese Festivals 

silks. A noteworthy feature is a group of the eight fattest 
men procurable. They are dressed in splendid crimson silks, 
and are intended to represent Midoo. By way of gaining 
favour with the god, numbers of men suspend heavy cymbals, 
incense-burners, bells, and other objects, by hooks through the 
skin of the arm, and even from the eyelids. Dai Wong is 
the Dragon King, and is the god of rain and the guardian 
of the farmers. 

The Dragon Boat Festival. — Always on the fifth day of the 
fifth moon (about the beginning of June). This festival 
originated in 450 B.C. A faithful minister of state, being 
dismissed by his prince, in spite of his faithfulness, threw 
himself into a small river in Hunan. Afraid that the fishes 
would devour his body, the people put out in boats to recover 
it, each man straining every nerve to find it. They carried 
with them packages of rice to throw into the water for the defunct 
statesman to eat. Since then, on the anniversary of the hero's 
death, dragon-boats race on the rivers of China, it is to be 
presumed, seeking his body. The dragon-boats are splendidly 
decorated with silk hangings, banners, lamps, embroideries, 
and present a beautiful picture. Some are 60 ft. long. They 
are long and narrow, and are propelled by paddles. The boats 
come down the Soochow Creek, and usually pass the Public 
Gardens between 1 p.m. and 3 p.m. Business is almost 
entirely suspended on this day. 

The last festival that gives any very evident signs of its 
existence is the Chung-Chin-Chieh, or Mid-Autumn Festival, 
in the eighth moon, fifteenth day (in August). This corre- 
sponds to our Harvest Festival : it occurs at the full moon. 
Altars covered with fruits may be seen in large numbers 
of the Chinese shops, on verandahs, and out in the open. 
Moon-cakes are extensively eaten at this festival. Packets of 
them in red paper may be seen in all the native confectioners' 

A sufficiently complete list of other festivals will be found in 
Kelly & Walsh's Diary, with exact dates of the movable 
feasts, which mostly mark changes in the seasons, such as 
" first frost." These are wonderfully accurate. I have known 


Volunteer Corps 

the "first frost" to occur on the exact day given in the calendar. 
A complete list of the Chinese festivals to the innumerable 
gods and demi-gods of China will shortly be published by the 
Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge. 

Shanghai Volunteers 

Never having had any garrison of foreign troops stationed 
here, except during the earliest days of conquest, during the 
Taiping Rebellion and the two years following the Boxer out- 
break, 1900-2, Shanghai has been compelled to rely upon its 
own citizens for its defence. A Volunteer Corps was formed 
very early in the history of the settlement, the volunteers 
taking an honourable part in the battle of Muddy Flat. 

They have been called out on several occasions, such as the 
various riots over the Ningpo Joss-house, during the wheel- 
barrow riot, and last, during the Boxer troubles of 1900, for 
which the various governments granted a medal to their 
subjects in the corps. At that time the volunteers were the 
sole defence of the settlement until the foreign troops arrived, 
too late, after all, to be of any service. Every young man, 
of every nationality, coming to Shanghai ought to join the 
volunteers, now that the foreign garrison is withdrawn. 

The Municipal Council makes the corps its peculiar 
charge, expending in 1902 the sum of Tls. 25,890,52 upon it. 
A magnificent range is provided for shooting, with a lavish 
supply of silver cups for the various competitions. Arms and 
accoutrements are found, as well as a club and gymnasium in 
the Town Hall, where drill is performed in wet weather. 

The various companies are : 

The Light Horse. German Company. 

Artillery. Japanese Company. 

" A " Company. Customs Company. 

" B " Company. Medical Staff. 

The volunteers are inspected annually by an officer of field 
rank from Hongkong. 

The requirements for efficiency are all laid down in a hand- 
book which may be obtained from the authorities. 



Shanghai is admirably policed. With the huge native 
population and the mixture of nationalities the order kept 
is remarkable. Under the police superintendent there were 
(in 1902) 83 European constables, 167 Sikhs, 604 Chinese 
constables. There is a staff of foreign and native detectives, 
which does very smart work. In 1902, out of $164,478 stolen 
no less than $139,553 were recovered. The settlement is also 
patrolled by mounted Sikhs, who always attract the attention 
of visitors, who are often puzzled as to their nationality. I 
have been asked if they were Turks. 

On the whole, life and property are safer in Shanghai 
than in most cities of the West, very much more so than in 
many of them. The visitor may make himself quite easy on 
the score of his personal safety among the crowds of Chinese 
on the streets by day. He is equally safe at night. 

In 1902 there were only 56 cases of larceny from the person, 
7 of robbery, none of man-slaughter, none of shooting, none 
of robbery with violence, 3 of murder among the Chinese 
only. I have not heard of any case of a foreigner having 
been murdered by a Chinese in the whole history of the 

The weekly Police returns, which a visitor may see in the 
papers, look alarming, judged by the large numbers figuring 
in them, but on analysis they amount to nothing. For 
instance, January, 1902, has a grand total of 10,101 arrests; 
but of these 1,676 were for "nuisances," including the letting 
off of crackers and burning joss-paper, so dear to the Chinese 
heart; 1,072 for obstruction, much of which cannot be 
avoided ; 3,263 were beggars, who try their luck in the 
settlement, and are rather pleased to get into a prison that 
provides free rice ; 3,396 were 'rickshaw coolies for either being 
dirty or having dirty 'rickshaws. These account for 9,407 of 
the total number arrested. There is also a very efficient force 
of river police under the Imperial Maritime Customs. 

The total cost of the Police Force in 1902 was Tls. 241,230,44. 


The Shanghai Fire Brigade 

Quite a feature of Shanghai is its Fire Brigade, Shanghai 
being the only important city that I am aware of in which the 
extinguishing of fires is undertaken voluntarily with positive 
enthusiasm and pleasure, even in the most unearthly hours of 
the night, by a staff of amateur firemen drawn from the young 
men of the settlement. 

Up to 1866 the matter was left to each hong to put out its 
own fires. 

In 1866 a volunteer fire brigade was formed, the Council 
having wells dug to supply water. 

Hand-engines were imported, and the brigade placed on its 
present footing. Since then vast improvements have been 
made, and the brigade is now in a very high state of efficiency. 
Water is supplied from the water company's mains. 

There are at present the following companies : 

Mih-ho-loongs . 
Hongkew . 

No. 1 
„ 2 

Le Torrent 

„ 4 
„ 6 
„ 7 

The companies are supplied with the necessary fire-engines, 
hose-reels, ladders, and trucks. 

In its report for 1902 the Council states that "the existing 
fire appliances are sufficient to cope with a fire in any building 
in the Settlement." This a good many people doubt. 

Men from No. 1 and No. 4 Companies have quarters at the 
Central Station in Honan Road. In addition to the volunteers, 
there is a paid native staff. The whole are under a chief 
engineer and paid departmental engineer. 

The amount of work falling to the firemen may be gathered 
from the report for 1902, when there were 102 fires in the 
settlements, 155 houses being destroyed and 112 damaged. 
The cost to the ratepayers is about Tls. 21,000 per annum. 

The alarm of fire is given in an old-fashioned but very 

161 n 

Public Band 

effective manner. A bell is rung on each of two lofty wooden 
towers, one in Shantung Road, one at the Hongkew Police 
Station. A bell rings for thirty seconds at the first alarm of 
fire, then ; 

For East Hongkew .... i stroke 

For West Hongkew . . . . .2 strokes 
For Central District north of Nanking Road 3 strokes 
West of Nanking Road .... 4 strokes 
French Settlement . . . . .5 strokes 
Bubbling Well and Sinza . ... 6 strokes. 

Public Band 

A society rejoicing in the name of "The Amateur Wind 
Instrument Society " seems to have been first in the field with 
a public band. In 1879 the trustees of the Recreation Fund 
took over the effects of this society in trust for the public, and 
in that year a provisional committee was formed to establish 
a public band. Musicians were engaged at Manila, and the 
band established. The band continued under entirely private 
management until 1881. In that year it was taken over by 
the community at the annual ratepayers' meeting, and was 
supported from public funds, under a committee of manage- 
ment on which the two Councils and the ratepayers were 
represented. In 1900 the management was taken over directly 
by the Council. 

The band is now a most important element in the pleasures 
and recreations of the Settlement. 

In T902 182 public performances were given, while 272 
private engagements were' fulfilled. 

The bandmaster, Signor Valenza, has issued a printed 
repertoire for the convenience of the public. 

There are at present 35 bandsmen, all from Manila. The 
band played in the Public Gardens from May 19th to Novem- 
ber 3rd, 1902, in the afternoons; and from July 15th to 
September 26th, at 9 p.m. It plays in the Town Hall on 
Wednesday afternoons during the winter months. Its cost in 
1902 was Tls. 17,460. 



IN Shanghai all kinds of clubs and associations abound. I 
have done my best to classify them. The names of the 
various secretaries are not given, as these officials change ; 
but there is no difficulty in ascertaining them. 

National and Local Associations 

St. George's Association 

This association has not been very active for some years ; 
but, in the course of its later history, it has given fetes. On 
April 23rd, 1903, there was a promenade concert in the Town 
Hall, and on the King's birthday (November 9th, 1903) a 
fancy-dress ball in the Town Hall. 

American Association of China 

This association exists to " further and safeguard the 
interests of the citizens of the United States in China, Japan, 
Korea, the Philippine Islands, and elsewhere in Asia ; to 
gather and distribute information." 

Membership is open to American citizens resident in these 
countries. Subscription, $10 annually for residents in Shang- 
hai ; $5 for others. 

Deutsche Vereinigung (German Association) 

This association exists for the purpose of furthering German 
interests, especially those of a commercial character, in the Far 
East. There is also in Shanghai a branch of the Deutscher 
Flottenverein (German Navy League), which has 650,000 
members all over the world. 


National Associations 

The Swiss Community 

formed a society in October, 1902, with the name of 
" Helvetia," " Societe Suisse en Chine." 

The objects of the society are to help necessitous Swiss, and 
to form a rallying point for the nation in the East. 

There are two classes of members, " effectifs " and "passifs." 
The entrance fee is $5, the monthly subscription $1. 

The China Association 

has a branch in Shanghai. In addition to the Annual Meeting 
it meets only when very important political and commercial 
matters need discussion, as during the recent matter of the 
new British Treaty with China. 

St. Andrew's Society of Shanghai 

This flourishing Society was established in 1865 (November 
30th) and reorganised in 1886 (October 25th). 

The objects of the society are — the relief of Scotchmen or 
their families, the promotion of goodwill among Scotchmen in 
the Far East, and the holding of a national gathering on St. 
Andrew's Day. 

The subscription is $2 per annum. At present there are 
about 700 members. 

St. Andrew's Day is celebrated by a ball, which is the great 
annual social event in Shanghai. 

The society maintains two bursaries at the Public School for 
children of Scotch parentage, each valued at $100. 

Association of British Colonials in the Far East 

The object of this association is the promotion of goodwill 
and friendship among Colonials in the Far East, the relief of 
Colonials or their families when destitute or in difficulties, and 
the furthering of Colonials' interests in the Far East. 

The entrance fee is $5 ; the annual subscription $2. 

Candidates must be proposed, seconded, and balloted for. 

The society was formed on December nth, 1902. 


Shanghai Club 

St. Patrick's Society of Shanghai 

The present rules were drawn up in 1894 only ; the society 
has existed for many years. 

The objects of the society are the relief of Irishmen or their 
families, the promotion of goodwill and friendship among 
Irishmen in the Far East, and the celebration of St. Patrick's 

Association of Lancastrians in Shanghai 

This association was founded in the year 1900, and mem- 
bership is open to all born in Lancashire, or who have, in the 
opinion of the committee, sufficiently identified themselves 
with the county by residence or otherwise. 

The objects of the association are partly social and partly 
benevolent. An annual ball is held. 

The subscription for the first year is $5, and subsequent 
years $2. The number of members at present is fifty-six. 

Candidates must be passed by two-thirds of the committee 

Social Clubs 

Shanghai Club 

This club was at first a proprietary institution, the ordinary 
members having no vote in its management. It was built in 
the days when Shanghai was so abnormally prosperous that 
once the Autumn Races even could not be held. 

It was opened in 1864, and was built on ground occupied by 
Hiram Fogg's store and a wood-yard. In consequence of the 
abundance of money at that time, the club was planned on 
far too ambitious a scale, though it has been good for posterity 
that it was, and it was in financial difficulties until the eighties. 
It is now the property of the members, and, having survived all 
the difficulties, is now the premier club in the East, and in a 
flourishing position. Some particulars as to its equipment 


Club Concordia 

will be found in the description in the section "A Walk along 
the Bund." 

The club consists of an unlimited number of members, 
subscribing and honorary. 

Conditions of ' Membership. — Proposal and seconding by 
members of the club ; exhibition of the name for three months 
prior to the ballot, in which one black ball in five excludes. 

Honorary Members. — Ministers, salaried Consuls-General, 
Consuls, a Judge exercising his functions in Shanghai, shall, on 
the invitation of the committee, become honorary members. 

Commissioned officers of the military, naval, and diplomatic 
services may become subscribers without payment of entrance 

Visitors. — On being proposed and seconded by members, 
visitors may have the use of the club for fourteen days, but 
not oftener than three times in twelve months. Members of 
the Bengal, Singapore, and Hongkong clubs have visitors' 

The entrance fee is $100 ; monthly subscription, $7. Absent 
members pay $5 per annum. 

Club Concordia 

This club must be accorded the next place to the Shanghai 
Club in importance, as the headquarters of the influential 
German community in Shanghai. It was founded on 
October 20th, 1865, and was located in the Foochow Road. 
The present club house, at No. 10, Canton Road, was formerly 
Mackenzie's Store. This was acquired in 1880 and opened on 
January 1st, 1881, after being equipped with most of the 
requirements of a first-rate club. There is a ballroom, which 
is also fitted with a stage for theatrical performances. Excellent 
concerts are given. There are billiard-rooms, a card-room, and 
bowling-alley. Tiffins and dinners are served to the members 
in excellent style at a fixed tariff per month when desired. 

Some famous entertainments have been given in the club 
ballroom, the most noteworthy taking place during the visit 
of Prince Henry of Prussia to Shanghai, in April, 1898. 


Country Club 

The subscription is $6 a month, with entrance fee 
of $50 ; candidates for membership must be proposed 
and seconded and balloted for. Although the membership 
is naturally mainly confined to Germans, the club membership 
is open to all who speak German. Those who cannot speak 
German are admitted, but have no vote in the management 
of the club. At present the membership is about 250. A 
new club house will shortly be erected on a commanding site 
in Jinkee Road. 

Country Club 

No. 120, Bubbling Well Road, opposite the Taotai's residence, 
is " the pleasantest club in Shanghai " ; it is of a purely social 
character. The resident membership is limited to 175; the 
ladies of the members' families have all the privileges of the 
club without payment of entrance fees or subscriptions, though 
without votes. The club house stands on 65 mow of ground 
(nearly 11 acres) ; the gardens have been admirably 'laid out by 
the " Garden and Grounds Committee,'' with lawns, flower 
beds, and ornamental water. The club house is replete with 
every requisite for the pleasure of the members. There are 
six billiard tables, a card-room, a miniature theatre, and hand- 
some ballroom, and even four ping-pong tables. 

The building, despite its long, straight line, presents a com- 
fortable and handsome appearance from the road. A circular 
drive has lately been made up to it. 

There are three classes of members — resident, absent, and 
honorary. " Persons of distinction " may as well observe 
that the committee has power to invite them " to make use of 
the club as honorary members without payment of subscrip- 
tion." Further, " any gentleman who may temporarily visit 
Shanghai shall, upon being duly proposed and seconded in 
a book kept for that purpose, be admitted to the use of the 
club as a visitor for a period not exceeding ten days, without 
subscription." After that time he must, reasonably enough, 

The conditions of membership are — candidates must be 
proposed and seconded by members ; their names are placed 


Masonic Club 

on the board for six days prior to a general ballot of the 
members ; one black ball in seven excludes ; not less than thirty 
members form a ballot. The entrance fee is $100, the 
subscription $7 per month. 

A short sketch of its history is to be found in the " Con- 
stitution and Rules of the Club.'' 

Masonic Club 

This club, formed in 1882, has a home in the Masonic Hall, 
on the Bund. There is a good library, billiard-room, reading- 
room, bar, and all the appointments of a good club. 

The yearly subscription is $50, the entrance fee $50, and 
the membership about 300. 

The club rents portions of the Masonic Hall building from 
the executive committee in whom the hall is vested. 

It must be borne in mind that it is a common mistake made 
by brethren attending masonic meetings at the Masonic Hall 
to imagine that, because the Masonic Club meets in the same 
building, they are entitled to use the club without having been 
elected members. That is, of course, not the case. A mason 
may, or may not, be a member of the club. 

The Freemasons' Lodge Germania is for Germans only. 

Mercantile Marine Officers' Association 

( Kos. 4 <5* 5, North Soochow Road) 

Every master, mate, or pilot connected with the shipping 
of this or any port is eligible for membership. Candidates 
must be proposed and seconded ; one black ball in five ex- 
cludes. The entrance fee is $10, and subscription $2-50 per 
month. The club possesses a library and two billiard-tables ; 
there is also a bar. 

The object of the society is to provide a club, to provide 
amusement and instruction, and "pay particular attention to 
the maritime meteorology of Eastern Asia." 

Any otherwise eligible master, mate, or pilot who is on 
shore employment may become an associate member. 


Marine Engineers' Institute 

Visiting Members. — Members who visit this port not oftener 
than once in four months, or who are attached to steamers 
or sailing vessels whose names are not in the list of " Local 
Steamers and Sailing Vessels trading to Shanghai," shall be 
termed visiting members. They have the same privileges as 
other members, and pay $2 a year, but they shall not be 
entitled to vote. 

Shanghai Marine Engineers' Institute 

This excellent institute was formed in 1876 "to encourage 
and foster professional intercourse between marine engineers 
of all classes, whether employed in steamers trading to and 
from Shanghai or on shore ; to provide commodious and 
properly furnished premises, containing library and reading- 
rooms supplied with books, newspapers, and periodicals, as 
well as appropriate aspects of technical interest ; for the en- 
couragement of self-culture, study, and advancement of a 
knowledge of the members' profession ; also to provide room 
for amusement, recreation, music, meetings, refreshment, 
the reception and distribution of members' correspondence, 
and for convenience of all kinds." All these objects it 
achieves in its commodious and comfortable premises, No. 8, 
Nanking Road. 

There is an excellent library, billiard-room, bar, etc. 

Membership is divided into six classes — full members, 
associates, graduates, visiting members, honorary members, 
out-port members. The subscription for full members is $3 
per month, with $10 entrance fee. 

Present membership, about 300. 

Young Men's Christian Association of Shanghai 

Under one management are the Foreign Association and the 
Chinese Association and the Student's Association. For many 
years there had been an association, but without a local 
habitation and club house. 



Under Mr. R. E. Lewis, of the International Y.M.C.A. 
Committee, the present associations were formed and premises 
secured, for the rent of which a generous guarantee fund of 
Tls. 4,000 per annum for four years was raised. 

The Chinese Y.M.C.A. is doing excellent work at its 
rooms in Peking Road. We are mostly concerned here with 
the Foreign Association. Its handsome premises are situated in 
1, Jinkee Road (off the Bund between the Peking and Nanking 

Dining- and reading-rooms and office are on the ground 
floor, and upstairs are the drawing-room, reading- and billiard- 
rooms. Above are residential rooms. 

Larger premises are urgently needed for the large member- 
ship of 400. Classes are organised. A debating society is 
connected with the association, as well as cricket, football, 
and tennis clubs, for which a small subscription is charged 
in addition to the monthly subscription of $2. Annual 
athletic sports are held, which are very well managed, and are 
quite a feature in the athletic life of Shanghai. 

The association is under the management of directors 
and executive committee. The power of voting and 
holding office is, as usual in Y.M.C.A.'s, vested in the 
" active members " only — i.e. those who are members of 
orthodox Protestant Churches ; other members have all the 
privileges of the association except that of voting and holding 

Customs Club 

This club is situated at the corner of Chapoo and Boone 
Roads, and is open to all members of the Imperial Maritime 
Customs service. Subscription, $2 per month. 

There is a library, billiard-room with three billiard tables, 
card-room, bar, bowling-alley, and ballroom reputed to be the 
best room for dancing in Shanghai (when not in use as a 
ballroom it is fitted up as a gymnasium). The membership is 
about 150 



Volunteer Club 

This- club exists for the benefit of the Shanghai Volunteers, 
and has its quarters in the Town Hall, Nanking Road. There 
is a well-stocked reading-room, a separate room for officers, 
and the best gymnasium in the Far East. The club is free to 

Club Portuguez 

This club was founded in 1901 for Portuguese subjects in 
Shanghai. It is situated at No. 30, North Szechuen Road, 
opposite the Club de Recreio. The buildings are new, and in 
every way well equipped for their purpose. The conditions of 
membership are the same as those of the Club de Recreio. 

Deutscher Gartenclub (German Garden Club) 

This is a proprietary club, with three hundred shares of 
Tls.ioo each, for "the promotion of the social life of the 
members and their wives as well, as for the furtherance of 
interest in sport." It is intended, as far as I can gather, to 
be a "German Country Club." 

The entrance fee is $50, the monthly subscription $5, and 
only shareholders vote. 

Literary and Educational Associations 

China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 

In 1857, says Maclellan, the Shanghai Literary and 
Scientific Society was formed. In 1858 this society was 
affiliated with the Royal Asiatic Society, a branch of which 
had been established in Hongkong. 

The building in which the society is housed is situated in 
the Museum Road, just behind the British Post Office. There 
is a good library of books, on Oriental subjects mainly ; a good 
supply of the proceedings of learned societies and learned 

I7 1 

Literary Associations 

magazines is kept. There is an exceedingly comfortable 
lecture hall ; upstairs is the museum. The fathers of the 
settlement did well for it ; their successors do nothing. The 
best thing in it is the collection of the birds of China, which 
is well worth a visit. Papers are read at irregular intervals, 
as they offer. They are often monuments of erudition, and 
are printed in an annual volume, which is of great value. 
The subscription is $5 per annum. 

Photographic Society- 
Years ago a society existed, but died out. A new society 
was formed in 1902 (April), and now has about ninety 
members. The Society meets in Union Church Lecture Hall, 
Yuen-ming-yuen Road, fortnightly during the autumn and 
winter. The subscription is $5 the first year, $2 annually for 
subsequent years. The society possesses a lantern of its own, 
for the exhibition of the members' lantern slides. 

Union Church Literary and Society Guild 

This society meets fortnightly during the season. It is open 
to residents as well as to members of this church. Members 
must be proposed and balloted for. Subscription, $1. There 
are four hundred members. Visitors to Shanghai may attend 
the meetings, which are generally announced in the " Social 
Diary " of the Daily News, and the corresponding columns in 
the other papers. 

American Women's Literary Association 

This is a society confined to American ladies, who meet 
periodically for the reading and discussion of papers. 

Horticultural Society 

This society gives two flowershows per annum. They are 
held in the Town Hali. There is a magnificent display of 
flowers and vegetables and table decoration. Subscription, 
$3 per annum, entitles to tickets for the show. 


Chamber of Commerce 

American University Club 

The president of this club is the U.S.A. Consul-General. 
Its object is to be a bond of union among all who have 
passed through American Universities. 

The following societies are for residents of German 
nationality : — 

Deutscher Concert Verein (German Concert Society) 

Very high-class concerts are given during the winter by this 
society, and I believe that tickets for these concerts must be 
obtained through members. 

Litterarischer Abend (Literary Evening) 

Papers are read and discussions held every Friday night at 
9 p.m. at the house of Pastor Boie, Whangpoo Road. 

Deutscher Gesangverein (German Church Choir) 

This choir practises every Tuesday afternoon at 5.30 p.m. at 
the German School, Astor Road. At present there are thirty 
members. Membership is open to men of all nationalities 
who speak German. 

Professional and Business Associations 

Chamber of Commerce 

This is international. At its meeting in 1888 the charges, 
commissions, and brokerages for transacting business in 
Shanghai were settled. Offices, 1, Yuen-ming-yuen Road. 

Stockbrokers' Association. — Offices, 4, The Bund. 



Pilots' Association. — Founded in 1900 ; offices, 5, Peking 

Yangtsee Pilots' Association. 

Shanghai Society of Engineers and Architects 

This society is for the general advancement of the science 
and practice of engineering and architecture. 

There are two classes of members : members who have the 
right to vote (these are persons practising on their own account 
or who are in responsible positions) ; and members who have 
no right to vote are student or associate members. 

The entrance is $10, and annual subscription $io; for 
students $5. In the ballot one black ball in four excludes. 

The society, which was formed in 1901, meets at 1, Yuen- 
ming-yuen Road. There are about one hundred members. 

Philanthropic Societies 

Shanghai Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 

This society was founded in August, 1898, at a meeting 
called by Mr. Frank J. Maitland. Foreigners in Shanghai are 
not in need of this institution, but the natives are. 

Despite the refuge for " aged and infirm " water-buffaloes 
at Soochow, there is nothing in which the Chinese character 
appears to less advantage than in its treatment of animals, not 
only of vermin such as rats — a favourite diversion being to 
drench them in kerosene and set them on fire — but of domestic 
animals. The Chinese livery-stable keepers have had several 
sharp lessons taught them by this society, one man having 
been fined $300. 

The society is managed by a committee of gentlemen of all 
nationalities. The subscription is $2 per annum. The muni- 
cipal police authorities have entered most heartily into the 
work of this society. 


Philanthropic Societies 

Shanghai Benevolent Society 

This society has been in existence twenty-six years. It 
assists the destitute with money, clothing, and food. In 1901 
it spent $i,942 , 48. The average expenditure is about $1,500. 
Subscriptions will be welcome. 

N.B. — The various national societies ought really to be 
scheduled under this head, as they give relief to the destitute 
of their respective nationalities — the St. Andrew's Society to 
destitute Scotchmen, the St. Patrick's Society to Irishmen, etc. 

Shanghai Seamen's Mission 

There is a Sailors' Home on Broadway, with chaplain. A 
new church has been built. Mercantile marine sailors are 
welcome to the reading-room, etc. 

Shaftesbury Home 

On Seward Road. A splendid resort, much frequented by 
men of H.M. navy. The tariff is very moderate ; bedrooms 
excellent. A new and palatial building was opened in 1903. 

Coffee Tavern 

A new coffee tavern is being built near the back of the 
Astor House, on Broadway. This is under the management 
of a committee. 

First Aid Association 

This association, affiliated with the St. John's Ambulance 
Association, has periodical lectures given by medical men on 
first aid to the injured. 

The usual certificates are granted, and a fee of $5 is the 
usual charge for the course. 

Shanghai " Florence Crittenton " Home 

This institution has been founded to undertake rescue work 
among Chinese girls. The Taotai permits girls brought up at 


Shanghai Recreation Fund 

the Mixed Court to be under the care of the Home while wards 
of the court. It is managed by a committee of ladies. 

Shanghai Recreation Fund 

No account of Shanghai can be made intelligible that omits 
on account of the Shanghai Recreation Fund, which, " origin- 
ating in the public spirit of a few individuals, has rendered 
assistance to every movement for the intellectual, athletic, and 
physical good of the community." 

Always admirably administered, it has done untold good, 
whether by the acquisition of the present priceless Recreation 
Ground, assisting learning by its aid to the Asiatic Society, 
ministering to the love of the beautiful by its assistance to the 
Public Gardens, or lending a hand to the healthy outdoor 
sports which are a distinguishing feature of Shanghai life, and 
are necessary to the health of the community in this climate. 

The history of the Recreation Fund is simple, and reflects 
the greatest credit on the early residents in the settlement. It 
is this : There was a racecourse on the site of the Fokien Road ; 
the ground inside the course was vacant. Four gentlemen — 
Messrs. R. C. Antrobus, James Whithall, Albert Heard, and 
Henry Dent — in view of the rapidly increasing value of land 
in the Settlement, thought that this ought to be secured as a 
public recreation ground. They accordingly bought it (34 mow, 
5 fung). A meeting of residents was held, they took the land 
over, trustees being appointed to hold it for the public. 
The cost of the ground was Tls. 5,365,60, the shareholders 
recouping themselves by rents derived from parts of the 
ground let to clubs and from pasturage. 

Now we come to the second removal, further into the country, 
to the present ground. 

"In March, 1863, the value of land about Shanghai was so 
much enhanced that it was deemed advisable to sell the 
Recreation Ground, and to purchase with the proceeds a 
larger and more suitable piece of land in the interior of the 
new racecourse. The old Recreation Ground was accordingly 
sold for Tls. 49>425- This sum of Tls. 49,425 constituted the 
Recreation Fund." 


Shanghai Cricket Club 

The first use made of this fund was the purchase of 430 mow 
of land in the interior of the racecourse for Tls. 12,500, in 
the name of the trustees of the Shanghai Recreation Ground, 
on November 28th, 1863. 

This is the present Recreation Ground which the visitor will 
see on the left when he emerges from the Nanking Road and 
crosses the Loongfei Bridge to the Bubbling Well Road. The 
value of it to the settlement is unspeakable, and I believe 
that Tls. 2,500,000 have been offered for it by the Chinese 
authorities. It is not necessary to give the further history of 
this fund, except to say that the balance remaining out of the 
Tls. 49,425, after the purchase and laying out of the Recreation 
Grounds, has formed an invaluable fund, always available for 
the assistance, by loan or otherwise, of all schemes for the 
benefit of the public. The Shanghai Club, Cricket Club, 
Baseball Club, Rowing Club, Public Gardens, and Museum are 
among the numerous organisations that have been assisted. 

According to the last balance sheet, for the year ending 
December, 1902, "the fund has now settled down to an 
annual income of, say, Tls. 2,500, which will be available for 
promoting recreation without disturbing the capital of the 

Its assets are Tls. 82,010,42, estimating the Recreation 
Ground at its original value, with improvements, at Tls. 31,000 
only, a ridiculously small sum. 

Sporting 1 Clubs 

Cricket Club 

That cricket was played in the earliest days of the settlement 
is certain. Wherever Englishmen settle they play cricket. 
Probably the first pitch was very poor ; it must have been 
among the creeks, graves, and reed-beds that occupied the 
site of Shanghai. We get out of prehistoric days in the years 
i860 or j86i, when a club was formed, which, with the 
exception of a very short interval in the autumn of 1863, 

177 12 

Shanghai Cricket Club 

has flourished, with the usual ups and downs of clubs, until 
now. Maclellan tells us that on September 9th, 1863, a meeting 
was held, where it was resolved that " the old club may be 
considered to have died out, and a new club be formed." 

The death of the old club was, however, due to the fact that 
the Recreation Ground trustees had sold the old Recreation 
Ground, on which it had played, and purchased the present 
Recreation Ground. In the interval the club had nowhere 
to play, and was consequently dormant. But that the cricket 
club has ever died out is denied by the present secretary, Mr. 

At any rate, as soon as the present Recreation Ground was 
secured, the trustees set to work to prepare a cricket ground. 
Among the swamps that then composed it, a cricket ground 
and baseball ground were the first to be laid out. From an 
analysis of the funds of the Recreation Fund dated February 
28th, 1866, we find that Mr. Henry Dent states that "raising, 
levelling, and fencing the cricket ground had cost the trustees 
Tls. 6,764,56. The interest on this sum is the origin of the 
rent which the club now pays the trustees — Tls. 300 per 

In 1864 the club had 80 members. At present there are 
250 playing members and 200 honorary members. The 
ground is now the finest in the East, with a pavilion fitted 
out with dressing-rooms, baths, and every convenience. 

The club has added lawn tennis, and is therefore the lawn 
tennis club of Shanghai ; it also permits football on certain 
conditions in the winter. 

There are twelve tennis courts and eighteen nets for the 
practice of cricket. There are few places where cricket is 
better "housed" than Shanghai. The drawback to all such 
games in the East is the fewness of clubs with which to play 
matches. Occasional inter-port matches are held between 
Yokohama, Shanghai, Hongkong, and Singapore that create 
great interest. In 1901 Shanghai was champion. In 1903 
Shanghai lost to Hongkong. 

The subscription to playing members is Tls. r6, with Tls. 10 
entrance fee ; honorary members, who have all the privileges 


Shanghai Race Club 

of the club but playing, Tls. 5. Names of intending members 
must be posted a week; one black ball in five excludes. 
Tennis privileges are of course included. 

Visitors to Shanghai will appreciate Rule XV., " That any 
gentleman who may temporarily visit Shanghai shall, upon 
being duly proposed and seconded, be allowed the use of the 
club property and ground for one month, free of subscription." 

Race Club 

Horse racing, cricket, rowing, and baseball seem to have 
been the first sports that the earliest settlers indulged in. 
Racing was probably the first. 

From the history of the Shanghai Recreation Fund I find 
that the first racecourse was " the plot of ground at the corner 
of Park Lane (now the Nanking Road) and Barrier Road 
(now the Honan Road), known as the Old Park, and used 
for a racecourse and for other purposes of recreation." 

It is difficult to realise that the Cathedral compound and the 
Honan, Kiangse, and Lower Nanking Roads, now covered 
with four- and six-storied buildings, were once a racecourse. 
The Bowling Alley, No. 44, Nanking Road, is part of the 
original grand-stand attached to this course. 

In 1854 this was sold, owing to the rise in the value of 
land, and what was called " the Shanghai Riding Course " was 
laid out, and was used for a riding and race course. The 
position of it can still be traced in the plan of the Settlement ; 
Hupeh Road, Chekiang Road, Thibet Road (better known as 
Defence Creek Road), which form a curve, occupy part of the 
site. Roughly, it occupied the land round about the Drill 
Hall on the Nanking Road. The old grand-stand stood on 
the west side of the present Lloyd Road, and was pulled down 
so recently as 1881. This was the second racecourse. 

Again land became too valuable to be used for purposes of 
recreation, and in either i860 or 1861 the present grass 
course was purchased and laid out by twenty-four share- 
holders. This was called the New Racecourse. 

In 1862 the Recreation Fund trustees spent Tls. 580 upon 


Shanghai Race Club 

it, but I can find no record of the exact date of its purchase 
nor of its cost. Thousands of taels have been spent upon it 
by the Race Club, to bring it up to its present state of 

There are two racecourses : the outer one, just described, 
belongs to the racecourse shareholders ; the inner mud 
course is the property of the Recreation Fund trustees, who 
hold the whole of the ground inside the grass course for the 
public. The length of the grass course is forty-four yards 
short of a mile and a quarter. 

The Race Club, limited to four hundred members, owns a 
handsome club-house and grand-stand. This building must 
have been begun about 1861-2, but has been undergoing 
alterations and enlargements ever since. The clock tower 
was erected about 1 890. There is stabling for a large number 
of ponies, and all appliances for racing; 

Races are held twice a year, in May and November. Should 
a visitor be in Shanghai at the time, if he is a racing man, he 
may purchase a ticket of admittance ; if he is not, he will find 
the scene one full of interest. The Chinese, a nation of bom 
gamblers, have unfortunately taken as kindly to betting as they 
have to their own gambling games, and crowds surround the 
course. The racing is chiefly confined to China ponies. 

If the visitor to Shanghai is inclined to think meanly of 
ponies, because they are ponies, he may have his opinion 
altered by this note from Mr. A. L. Robertson's account of 
the China pony in Mr. R. W. Little's pamphlet " The Jubilee 
of Shanghai " : " The stamina of the China pony is almost 
beyond belief, as is illustrated by the weights they carry. The 
official standard is 10 stone for 12 hands, and three pounds 
for every inch above. In the early days of the Sixties, when 
Shanghai was very rich and prosperous, we find that even 
English horses were imported and run. The fall of the 
dollar has, however, stopped this, and now, except for a few 
walers (Australian horses), the racing is confined to China 

The earliest recorded race was in 1851. The following 
table will be of interest : — 


Record Times for China Ponies 



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00 ON 















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a m 


CO <N 













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fO "I 

















: o 























k. >> 



















(72 PQ 



















o pq 
















fa 1 










CD - 









° 2 


























u C3 
*£ ° 




























Dramatic Clubs 

Amateur Dramatic Club of Shanghai 

Generally known as the A.D.C. The exact date of the 
foundation of this club cannot be ascertained, the early records 
having been burned. It has, however, been in existence at 
least forty years. The object is, the " encouragement of 
amateur acting, and the maintenance of a theatre." The club 
constitution requires that members shall be those who are 
" willing to take an active part or otherwise to assist in 
dramatic performances." The number of members is limited 
to sixty ; new members have to be proposed and seconded 
and elected by the general committee. 

The subscription is $5, and membership is open to all 
nationalities. The representations of the club are looked 
forward to with great interest by the public of Shanghai. 

Societe Dramatique Francaise 

Commonly called the French A.D.C. This society was 
formed about the year 1868 for the purpose of fostering 
dramatic talent and giving performances. It was originally 
confined to residents of French nationality, and gave its 
performances in the French Municipal Hall. 

From 1886 to 1892 the society lay dormant, or ceased 
to exist, but in 1892 it was reorganised. Membership was 
made open to any nationality. The performances are given 
in the Lyceum Theatre. Since 1892 the society has given 
thirty-one performances. 

The subscription is $12 per annum, entitling the members 
(from autumn, 1903) to two tickets for each performance, 
instead of three as hitherto. This society is in a very 
flourishing condition. 

The number of members is limited to 200. 

Shanghai Rowing Club 

This club, founded in i860, is in a very flourishing condition. 
It has about 200 members, owns 52 boats, including pleasure 


Shanghai Golf Club 

boats, possesses a boat-house opposite the Union Church 
on the Soochow Creek, and is about to build a new one. 
It holds two regattas annually, in May and October, on the 
Whangpoo, not an ideal river for rowing on account of the 
strong tides and currents ; but the Soochow Creek, on an 
upper reach of which the regattas were held until 1895, is 
now impossible, owing to the increase of traffic. 

Membership is open to all nationalities. 

Conditions of Membership. — The names of intending 
members must be sent to the secretary with proposer and 
seconder. In the ballot one black ball in five excludes. 
The subscription is Tls. 15 per annum, with an entrance fee 
of Tls. 10. 

" Gentlemen visiting Shanghai may, after being proposed 
and seconded, be allowed, at the discretion of the committee, 
to use the club boat-houses, boats, and property for one 
month, without the payment of any fee or subscription. 

" Members of rowing clubs at the out-ports may become 
non-resident members on payment of Tls. 5 per annum.'' 

The club flag is dark blue with S. R. C. in gold letters. 

Shanghai Golf Club 

This flourishing and popular club was formed in the year 
1894. That golf was so long in establishing itself in Shanghai 
is remarkable. The links are on the Recreation Ground, and 
a handsome club-house was erected in 1898, with dressing- 
rooms for ladies and gentlemen, gear-room, and bar. 

Candidates must be balloted for, one black ball in five 
excluding. Numerous competitions are held during the year. 
The entrance fee is $25, and subscription $10 per year. 

" Gentlemen temporarily visiting Shanghai, or newly intro- 
duced by a member, may play for one month, but this privilege 
cannot be claimed a second time in one season, except in case 
of officers of the Army and Navy." 

Members of recognised golf clubs may, ipso facto, be 
visiting members. Distinguished residents or visitors may 
be granted these privileges for a longer period " on the 


Paper Hunt Club 

approval of the committee " ; and on payment of $5 temporary 
residents may become members of the club for two months, 
and have all privileges except playing for prizes, medals, etc. 

Members of the club may become life members on payment 
of $100. Honorary members have all the privileges of the 
club except playing and voting. 

Paper Hunt Club 

It is not likely that Englishmen were long in Shanghai 
without becoming aware of the attractions of the surrounding 
district for cross-country riding. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that the Paper Hunt Club shares with the Race Club and 
Cricket Club the honour of being one of the three oldest clubs 
in Shanghai. As far back as 1855, after the collapse of the 
Triad rebels, " small parties of men rode over the country 
from point to point." But it was not until after the Taiping 
rebellion had been put down in 1864 that the sport became 
regularly organised. 

It was due to some officers of regiments stationed here : 
they introduced paper hunting as it had been conducted in 
the Crimea and in India. Riders were sent ahead scattering 
paper ; they were habited in red cowls to distinguish them 
from the hunters, who had to catch them. There was no 
finishing place, as now ; the " foxes " were actually hunted. 

The first paper hunt was run in 1863, and was " won by 
Mr. Augustus Broom on a pony called Mud," appropriately 
enough, in regard to the condition in which ponies arrive at 
the post. The sport has kept and increased its popularity, 
and one of the most brilliant sights in Shanghai is the club 
meet on a Saturday afternoon, when, if it occurs near the 
Settlement, the throng of hunters and spectators presents a 
very lively picture. Two silver cups are given each hunt, one 
to a light and the other to a heavy weight. 

" All those standing under twelve stone are light weights," 
and " no prize is given to a heavy weight unless he finishes 
among the first six." Winners of hunts are privileged to wear 
a red jacket. 


Shanghai Yacht Club 

The Shanghai Yacht Club 

The following history of the Yacht Club will be of interest. 
It is, as far as I know, the only history of yacht racing in 
Shanghai. Mr. Murray Adamson, the hon. secretary, has kindly 
compiled it. 

"Wherever a few dozen Britishers are gathered together, 
and the necessary watery element is to be found, there 
will their native love of sailing produce something in the 
nature of a yacht club. Thus, in the early fifties, Shanghai's 
sailing enthusiasts discovered that the muddy, swift-flowing, 
unattractive Whangpoo was a sufficient medium for the 
purposes of yacht racing. The records of those early days 
are missing, but we know that not later than the beginning 
of the sixties racing was carried out with great keenness, the 
craft being of very varied types, now mostly obsolete, but the 
bulk of them were of the houseboat type with one long China 

"Apart from the drawback of a swiftly flowing tidal river, 
the yachtsmen of Shanghai require to be skilful and alert as 
sailors. On account of the crowded state of the waterways, and 
the numerous shallows and ' spits ' which abound in almost 
all parts of the river — the down-river course, when thrashing 
in a 'spanking breeze' through the crowd of junks bound up 
the river on the first of the flood, or to negotiate the Woosung 
junk anchorage in a foul tide and a blow, are no mean feats for 
a yachtsman ; whilst the manipulation of a full-canvassed yacht 
in the 'junks ' up river requires a cooler head and nicer sense of 
judgment than are called for by any of the yachting centres at 
home that I have ever seen, ' crowded Cowes ' not excepted. 
It will thus be seen that, though by no means perfect, the 
Whangpoo presents certain sporting features which doubtless 
have maintained yachting on its muddy waters in the present 
enthusiastically vital condition. 

" From the year 1872, when the club was reconstituted in 
its present form, until 1890, the boats raced with great regu- 
larity. They were of considerable size, varying from about 


Shanghai Yacht Club 

1 8 to 47 tons, Thames measurement. Of these, the Charm, 
Ariadne, Thistle, Wild Dash, Louise, and Pinafore were what 
might be termed centre-board houseboat yachts, and were 
rigged with large baton mainsail and jib. For long the 
Undine proved facile princefis, and held the lead until the 
advent of the Clutha. (46 tons) and Romola (47 tons) in 1883 
and 1884. Both of them were proper cutter-rigged yachts, with 
large centre-boards. The weekly competitions, principally over 
what are now known as the long courses — namely, down river, 
round the red buoy, outside Woosung, and return, and up 
river -to mark-boat moored off the Sakong Creek, and return — ■ 
proved that the Clutha easily outclassed the rest of the fleet. 

" The death-blow being given in 1891 to the large class racing 
by the absolute invincibility of the Clutha over her rivals, and 
the cost of upkeep being gradually made more burdensome, 
owing to the proportionately reduced wealth of many yachts- 
men, as year by year the fall in exchange reduced the value of 
silver savings, a class of smaller boats was introduced, and the 
2^ rater, under the then existing Y.R.A. rule of measure- 
ment, with the exception that length over all was taken — viz. 

length x sail area in square feet .. ., ., , , 

— 5 2 = rating — became the standard 


craft for the S.Y.C.'s weekly races. 

" To meet this rule, in 1892 Mr. Moore, of Messrs. Barlow & 
Co., had the Larnb and Mr. E. C. Pearce thePrmcess constructed, 
and Mr. A. E. Jones designed and built the Spoondrift, and later 
the Henrietta, whilst Mr. Duncan Glass brought out plans from 
home of the Violet, designed for the class by Mr. G. L. Watson ; 
and later the same eminent constructor forwarded plans of 
the Winifred to Mr. McEwen, of Jardine's — a boat intended 
to surpass the splendid feats of his former creation, the Violet, 
which, however, she failed to do. The Atom and the Pirate, 
locally designed and built by Mr. Ramsay, who afterwards 
designed and built the Ella, together with Mr. E. Graham's 
Idaho, and the 2nd-rater Mascotte, owned by Mr. Burgoyne, 
made up the club fleet under this ruling, which was success- 
fully operated until 1896, when the Violet being 'cock o' the 
walk,' Captain J. P. Roberts essayed to reduce her supremacy, 


Shanghai Yacht Club 

and designed and built for Mr. Burgoyne the Lorna, a boat of 
the skimming-dish type, which, principally owing to very skilful 
handling, successfully accomplished this object. 

"In 1897 a one-design class, known as ' Flappers,' was intro- 
duced to suit the pockets of the junior members of the club. 
These boats were designed on an adopted model of Mr. Linton 
Hope's Clyde (18-ft. class) by Mr. George Watson, of Shanghai, 
the main difference being an over-all length of 24 ft., instead 
of 21 ft., and an increase of 25 square ft. in the sail area. Five 
boats were built to this class — viz. Leven, Madcap, Sybil, Merlin, 
and Irvine — and gave probably the best racing that has been 
enjoyed in Shanghai for many years, the boats proving both 
economical and handy." 

These boats continued racing as a separate class until 1901, 
when they were merged in the handicap class. The Leven 
proved all round to be the pick of the bunch, though we are 
inclined to believe that this was principally due to the excellent 
handling of her owner, Mr. Murray Adamson, and not to any 
superiority in the boat herself. 

The Lorna, in 1897, being so far superior to the other 
boats, under the usual conditions of sailing on the Whangpoo, 
bid fair to cause the extinction of the 2\ rating class ; 
accordingly the rule relating to the overhang was abolished, 
the proper length and sail area rule applying, the same being 
in force at the present time. 

Messrs. D. Glass and A. E. Jones, taking advantage of this, 
had their boats the Violet and Spoondrift lengthened and 
overhangs added, which made a great improvement in the 
boats and benefited the racing in the class. The following 
year the Lorna changed hands, and, imitating the example of 
the former boats, was considerably changed, her new owner 
renaming her the Winsome. 

In 1900 a new boat appeared amongst the fleet, of larger 
dimensions than the 2| raters — i.e. the Thrasher — which boat 
was lengthened during the next year. 

In 1901 the Midget Sailing Club was absorbed and the 
Rating and Flapper classes abolished, the fleet being divided 
into classes A and B, Class A for 2 raters and over, and 


Recreation Clubs 

Class B for under 2 raters, the weekly races being under 
handicap conditions made up by the committee. In addition 
to this a rating prize was allowed, which applied to the whole 
fleet. These conditions remain at present in force. 

Midget Sailing Club 

The boats used by this club are sampans — not the gaily 
painted and hooded variety familiar to passengers from ships 
to the shore, but the small, square-ended sampans used as the 
dingies by houseboats. They are used by sportsmen up- 
country for stalking wildfowl, and are sometimes sailed as well 
as yuloed. 

The members of the club sail their sampans for sport one 
against the other on the waters above Shanghai. There is an 
occasional regatta. The club is a very informal and therefore 
a pleasant one. The subscription is nominal — $1, to cover 
cost of printing. This club is not to be confused with that 
of the same name which was absorbed by the Yacht Club 
(which see). 

Recreation Club 

This club, the object of which is " the promotion of field 
and other sports among its members," was founded in 1898, 
and is the successor of the old Athletic Club, which dates 
some thirty years back and used to hold annual athletic sports, 
as the present Y.M.C. A. does. It has an excellent field next 
to the Cricket Club, on the Recreation Ground, with pavilion. 

For playing members the entrance fee is $10 and annual 
subscription $15; for non-playing members, no entrance fee, 
and subscription $5. Candidates must be proposed and 
seconded and balloted for, one black ball in three excluding. 

" Any gentleman who may temporarily visit Shanghai shall, 
upon being duly proposed and seconded, be allowed the use 
of the club and property for a period not exceeding one 

The first cricket eleven of this club is very strong. 

Recreation Clubs 


There are, as far as I can ascertain, six football elevens in 
Shanghai, apart from second elevens : — 

i. The Shanghai Football Club (Association and Rugby). 

2. The Recreation Club Eleven. 

3. The Engineers' Football Club. 

4. The Dock Football Club. 

5. The Y.M.C.A. Club. 

6. The Police Football Club. 

The chief event of the year is the match between the 
Shanghai Club and the Engineers, for a handsome cup. 

Association football is the more popular of the two games 
in Shanghai. 

Polo Club 

This club has been established about four years. Its 
ground is on the south-west side of the Recreation Ground 
(farthest from the Bubbling Well Road). 

Playing members pay $10 per annum ; honorary members, 
$5 fop the season. New members must be passed by the 
committee, which can stop the admission of new members in 
case the number of playing members becomes too large. In 
playing, one side wears white, the other red. 

All officers of the Army and Navy may be invited to join 
the games by the committee. Residents of the out-ports may 
join the games, if introduced by members. 

Ponies are to be approved by the committee, and must not 
exceed 14 hands 2 inches. 

Shanghai Drag-Hunt Club 

This club has been in existence for about forty years, and 
three times a week during the season there are runs across 

The membership is open to both ladies and gentlemen. If 
the field becomes 100 large, the committee may restrict further 


Recreation Clubs 

elections. There are about forty members. The annual 
subscription is $50. In the ballot one black ball in ten 

There are at present ten couples of foxhounds, all of which 
have been imported from England, those bred locally being 
useless for hunting purposes. 

Baseball Club 

The national game of the United States was played in the 
early days of the Settlement. Provision was made for it when 
the present Recreation Ground on the Bubbling Well Road 
was acquired. 

In May, 1865, the Recreation Fund lent the club Tls. 2,000 
to level fences and sod the baseball ground, 150 yards square, 
adjoining the cricket ground. This ground is now occupied 
by the Recreation Club. The club, however, ceased to exist 
in 1870, handing the ground back to the trustees of the 
Recreation Fund. Since then it has had a chequered career, 
owing to the absence of competing teams to play with. The 
present club has been in existence about eight years. 

The subscription is $5 per annum. Candidates for member- 
ship must be proposed and balloted for. 

During the season, which extends from the conclusion of 
the May races till October, the club has a room in the Metro- 
pole Hotel, where the gear is kept. The present membership 
is about seventy-five. 

Gun Club 

This old-established club has a ground in Markham Road, 
where there is every convenience for the sport. Clay pigeons 
are used. There is a high bamboo platform for rocketers. 

Sportsman's Gun Club 

This club was formed in 1901. The grounds are alongside 
the Rifle Range, and are within ten minutes' walk of the 
Settlement, vi& the new Szechuen Road extension. The club 
ground is open at all times for practice. 


Recreation Clubs 

Swimming- Bath Club 

This club was formed in 1892, and a swimming-bath was 
made on the Recreation Ground. Only shareholders can be 
members. The shares, of which there were 200 originally, 
at Tls. 30 apiece, are now at a very high premium — nearly 
Tls. 150. 

The only way to obtain the advantages of the club is to 
buy a share at its market value, and be passed in the ordinary 
way. Candidates must be balloted for, one black ball in four 
excluding. " Visitors may be admitted to the club under 
such rules as the committee see fit." The subscription varies, 
according to the needs of the club. The bath is to the left, at 
the end of the straight drive into the Recreation Ground. The 
mat roofing has to be taken down before the autumn races, as 
the Race Club sold the Recreation Ground on condition that 
no erection should be permitted to interfere with the view of 
the racecourse. 

Shanghai Hockey Club 

This club was formed in the year 1899. It shall consist of 
not more than sixty members. The annual subscription is 
$3 ; the entrance fee, $3. In the balloting, one black ball in 
five excludes. 


The game of tennis is a department in the Cricket and 
Recreation Clubs and Y.M.C.A. There is a German Tennis 
Club for Germans only. Entrance fee, Tls. 20 : monthly 
subscription, $5. The club has a plot of the Recreation 
Ground allotted to it. There is a small club-house. 

Bowling Alley 

This club meets in one of the oldest buildings in Shanghai, 
in a small plastered house in the Nanking Road, nearly 
opposite the Kiangse Road corner. It is a survivor of the old 
fives and racquet court. The club is, as far as membership is 
concerned, . the most exclusive in Shanghai : there are only 


Recreation Clubs 

twenty-four members. Candidates have to wait some years 
on the list before vacancies occur. 

Shanghai Rifle Association 

This association is one of very great importance. Now that 
the foreign troops have left Shanghai, every resident ought at 
least to know how to shoot. 

This, association affords the opportunity, for though Rule IV. 
of the constitution says that " membership shall be restricted 
to members of the defence forces of Shanghai and such others 
as may be specially approved by the committee," Rule I., stating 
" that the association shall consist of an unlimited number of 
members," opens it to all suitable residents. 

There are some three or four shoots per month at the Rifle 
Range, and members may practise with Morris tubes at the 
Drill Hall. The subscription is only $5 per annum. 

Cups are given in the shooting competitions. "The rifle 
allowed shall be as follows (Rule X.) : '303 magazine rifle as 
issued by the British Government and of private manufacture 
of bon&-fide Government pattern, and bearing the Government 
viewer's mark ; also any other pattern of '303 rifle issued by 
the Municipal Council." 

Smoking Concert Club 

Subscription, $5. Holds some two or three concerts during 
the winter season. 

Club de Recreio 

This club is situated in 31, North Szechuen Road, and was 
founded in 1870. The membership is restricted to persons of 
Portuguese nationality. The objects of the club are to hold 
recreational, musical, and social gatherings for the members 
and their families. Musical and social gatherings are held at 
intervals, often fortnightly. 

The subscription is $3 per month, with $1 entrance fee. 
Candidates must be proposed and seconded, and their names 
exhibited for a fortnight. Two black balls exclude. 


Shooting 1 

Shooting has been pursued with great ardour since the 
earliest days of the Settlement. " Few large places can boast 
of better shooting than Shanghai," says Mr. H. T. Wade, 
whose book on Shooting in the Yangtsze Valley ought to be 
seen by all interested in this form of sport. The supply of 
birds in the district is due to the fact that " Shanghai lies on 
the eastern limit of the great migratory spring and autumn 
band, which is known to be five hundred miles wide.'' 
From Siberia to the south in autumn and in the opposite 
direction in spring countless millions of wildfowl cross the 
Yangtsze and feed by its waters. China is also naturally rich 
in bird life ; it is the original home of the pheasant. Two 
other causes account for the richness of this district, from 
Shaughai to Wuhu, in bird life — the fact that the natives have 
never been in the habit of destroying them for food, and the 
desolation caused by the Taipings in the sixties. The popu- 
lation was swept away, jungle grass grew instead of rice, cities 
were ruined ; so that wildfowl flourished. 

Some extraordinary bags have been made. "It 1887 five 
guns bagged 1,711 head; in 1889 five guns in twenty-one days 
bagged 2,049." These feats . are not likely to be repeated, 
and greater moderation will have to be shown in the future by 
sportsmen. Even the bird life of China, enormous as it is, 
cannot stand the strain put upon it every winter by sportsmen 
and native trappers. Still, there is at present ample sport. 
Snipe are still bagged close to 'the Settlement, also occasional 

The best shooting-grounds can only be reached by a house- 
boat trip. The sportsman may visit the Pootung peninsular, 
and the estuary of the Yangtsze by Woosung. Gazay and 
Kashing districts, Hoochow, Woosieh to Chiukiang and Wuhu, 
are favourite resorts. As far as I understand, snipe and wood- 
cock, pheasants, wild duck, and teat may be obtained almost 

Visitors anxious for shooting ought to try and obtain expert 

'93 13 

Riding 1 

advice from some old hand, and read Mr. H. T. Wade's 
" With Boat and Gun," to be obtained at Messrs. Kelly & 
Walsh's. It must be remembered that the Shanghai Municipal 
Council enforces a close season for game ; this is observed by 
all sportsmen. Twelve-bore cartridges are usually employed. 


There are few places where the adage " The best thing for 
the inside of a man is the outside of a horse " is better under- 
stood than in Shanghai. Riding is one thing that is far cheaper 
here than at home, where to keep even a riding pony, let 
alone a horse, is a sign of wealth. Riding is very popular. 
A visit to the Bubbling Well Road between 5 a.m. and 8 a.m. 
will prove that no form of sport has a greater hold on the 
community. The usual mount is the tough China pony. 
Some ride Australian horses (walers), but the majority ponies. 
They may be bought at the Horse Bazaar and Horse 
Repository (q.v.) auctions, or hired at any of the three foreign 
livery stables at $3 a ride or $40 a month. Bargains may 
sometimes be got at Tls. 30 to Tls. 50. They may be 
bought broken or as "griffins" — i.e. unbroken, fresh from 
Mongolia. At the race auctions likely griffins at times fetch 
hundreds of taels. For riding there are the soft roads in the 
country — Robison, Gordon, Brenan, Rubicon, Hungjao Roads, 
Rue du Paul Brunat, etc. Riders are confined to these in spring 
and summer ; but in winter, from the end of October until 
some time in March, the whole country is open. This is the 
paper hunt season. Any rider, however, can ride anywhere 
across furrow and ditch, of course taking reasonable care not 
to destroy the farmers' property. Strangers are warned not to 
despise nor treat contemptuously the China pony because he 
is " only a pony.'' Having gained his experience of human 
nature from the Mongolian variety of it, he has not been 
impressed by it, and is apt to treat man as " the enemy." 
There is an x quantity in every China pony. An undignified 
position on the ground is the penalty of treating him 





SHANGHAI is situated in latitude 31° 14' 42" N. and 
longitude 12 i° 29' 12" E. on the left bank of the River 
Whangpoo, twelve miles from its mouth at Woosung, where the 
Whangpoo falls into the mighty Yangtszekiang. It may be 
helpful to remember that Shanghai lies in practically the same 
latitude as the head of the Persian Gulf, Cairo, and New 
Orleans, which makes its frosty winter all the more remarkable. 

History of the District 

Shanghai lies in the south-east corner of that portion of the 
province of Kiangsu to the south of the Yangtsze. Kiangsu and 
portions of the neighbouring provinces of Chekiang and Anhuei 
form a vast plain, owing its origin to the fine silt brought down 
in the course of ages by the Yangtsze and deposited in the sea. 
The physical features of the district have, therefore, undergone 
enormous changes since the day when Wuhu was the head of 
the delta of the Yangtszekiang, and that river found its way to 
the sea by three mouths at least. Even in historic times these 
changes have been great. In a.d. 780 the Soochow Creek is 
said to have been five miles broad, and the Soochow Creek 
was the main stream, the Whangpoo flowing only as far as 
Loongwha, finding its way to the sea by another channel. 
These changes still continue : the Whangpoo is said to be at 

J 95 

Physical Features 

least two hundred yards narrower than it was thirty years ago, 
and the Soochow Creek, in the mouth of which the British 
fleet anchored in 1843, now affords a passage for boats only in 
mid-channel. So serious has the condition of the river become 
that a conservancy board has been constituted by the Great 
Powers in conjunction with the Chinese authorities to improve 
navigation in the river ; the largest shipping of the present 
day not being able to get up to Shanghai. Sir Robert Hart 
once predicted the ruin of Shanghai, owing to the silting up of 
the river. 

The innumerable waterways of the province, partly natural 
and partly improved by the Chinese, and which form the roads 
of the province, are due to this sedimentary origin of the 

Physical Features 

The visitor to Shanghai cannot be refreshed by the sight of 
mountains. The great plain stretches to the Tahu (lake) on 
the west; the Yangtsze on the north, say 150 by 100 miles, 
broken only by a few rocky hills — " The Hills," 20 miles west 
of Shanghai, which were once islands in the sea. 

The whole plain is cultivated like a garden. It is divided 
into an infinite number of small holdings, which the patient 
farmer makes yield the utmost. Travelling is mostly done by 
boat, though there are footpaths suitable for foot-passengers 
and the native wheel-barrow. All sub-tropical products thrive, 
as do those of the warmer parts of the temperate zone ; those 
of the strictly temperate zone do grow, but mature too quickly. 
Large crops of wheat and rape are harvested in May ; the 
rapidity of their growth in April is incredible. Cotton and 
rice are planted immediately, and harvested in autumn, the 
network of canals affording abundance of water, which is 
pumped up into the fields by water-wheels, driven either by 
the ugly but strong water-buffalo, or by the legs of men and 
women. To see them for hours together on the embankments 
treading the paddles which raise the water is one of the sights 
of China. 

Among the cotton, beans are sown. They manage to thrive 


Physical Features 

even in winter, and are ready for gathering in spring. Around 
Soochow are vast acreages of lily-ponds. There are small 
mulberry plantations, but the systematic culture of the silk- 
worm starts farther north, by Soochow, and west. 

Of vegetables, the name is legion — egg-plants, chillies, 
sweet potatoes, melons of many sorts (July), cucumbers, 
cabbage, asparagus, carrots, and turnips. Kobe and other 
native vegetables grow luxuriantly, and may be had nearly all 
the year round. European fruits do not thrive so well, ripening 
too quickly ; the weather is so glorious in May that flowers 
and fruits rush out at once. But strawberries are steadily 
improving in quality ; raspberries are beginning to be culti- 
vated ; first-rate cherries grow on the Tahu ; but apples and 
pears are hard and have no flavour. Of excellent fruit, how- 
ever, there is plenty. Shanghai peaches are famous, especially 
a flattened variety with a deep sulcus in the centre ; beboes, a 
golden-skinned fruit from a kind of laurel (in May) are good ; 
melons are excellent ; Shanghai persimmons are, I have heard 
it said, worth coming from the States to taste. There are 
plums, "Chinese dates" (which Wells Williams says are a kind 
of jujube-plum), lichees, bananas, mangoes, oranges from the 
south, and grapes from Chefoo. There is probably no place 
in the world so richly supplied with fruit as Shanghai. 

Trees are not large. All old ones seem to have been de- 
stroyed by the Taipings. The bamboo grows everywhere : 
each village has its grove. There are species of elm, pine, 
and willow (the true Babylonian, according to Wells Williams). 

Every species of flower thrives. If the visitor is dis- 
appointed at not seeing more strange varieties, he must 
remember that China has been ransacked for flowers, and that 
many of those he was familiar with at home are really natives 
of China — the primula, for instance. The tea-rose and climb- 
ing geranium were first found in this district. In May, 
spring, summer, and even autumn flowers burst out together in 
the first glow of the summer sun — pansies, violets, golden-rod, 
coxcombs, tulips, geraniums, hyacinths, forget-me-nots ; even 
dahlias forget the proper order of their appearing, and bloom 
together with the daisy. 



Visitors to Shanghai will find the weather tropical, temperate, 
or frosty, and even bitterly cold, according to the season at 
which they arrive. Generally speaking, the climate may be 
described, in the words of the Health Officer, as " one-third of 
the year tropical ; two-thirds temperate." That is and must be 
a good climate. There are two drawbacks : the great range 
of temperature, occasionally up to 40 in a day, the mean 
daily range for the year being 18 ; and the damp nature 
of the climate, the average degree of saturation for the year 
being 82 out of a possible 100. As compensation, there is 
almost continuous brilliant sunshine, even in the coldest season ; 
it is this that is so much missed by the residents who return 
home. Three dull days together are rare. The statistics for 
1901 give a fair idea of the climate. They are taken from 
the Municipal Report. Barometer, mean, for the year, 3003 
inches. Thermometer (Fahr.) : mean, 5 8° 2' ; first quarter, 
40'2 ; second quarter, 63'8°; third quarter, 76.2°- fourth 
quarter, 52 '5° The rainfall for the last twenty years has 
averaged 4S'3 in. per annum. In 1901 it was 37'45 m - It is 
very unevenly distributed. In 1901 there fell 377 in. in the first 
quarter; I3's8 in. in the second; i4'95 m - m the third; 5T5 
in. in the fourth. It will be seen that most of the rain falls in 
the summer. The visitor need not be alarmed at the amount, 
which is much greater than England, a reputed wet climate. 
In Shanghai, when it rains, it rains heavily : it is either wet or 
fine; there are no chance showers. Brilliant sunshine is the 
rule. Hail seldom fails ; thunderstorms are not so frequent or 
severe as might be expected. But little snow falls; there is. 
usually one slight fall in December or January, about Chinese 
New Year. Frost usually runs from 5 to io° Fahr. in December 
and January. According to the " Hong List," the coldest 
weather known was on January 15th, 1893, when 24 of frost 
were registered. Taking the months throughout the year, the 
climatic conditions to be expected are as follows, starting with 
July : July, August, and half of September are tropical ; the 
thermometer may rise to 98 , but not every year, and it does 


Health of Shanghai 

not remain steadily very hot. Rains and typhoons moderate 
the heat. From the middle of September to December and 
January, and occasionally to March, there is the most delightful 
weather in the world, " set fair," ' brilliantly sunny, growing 
progressively cooler till January closes. February and March 
are changeable, with rain, and some hot days in March. 
April is equivalent to an English May. May and June are 
delightful months ; the rain and heat make vegetation luxuriate 
and run riot out of sheer exuberance of vitality. A great deal 
of sickness is attributed to the climate which can easily be 
accounted for other ways. 


Although semi-tropical, Shanghai is a healthy place. The 
drainage is excellent, in spite of the fact that it is on the 
sea level. At the census in 1900 the "foreign population was 
6,777, and consisted of 3,181 men, 1,776 women, and 1,817 
children." The foreign shipping population, which numbered 
1,253, was not included. The foreign houses numbered 1,600 ; 
the native houses, 49,000. The present foreign population is 
over 7,000.; native population, 350,000. The total area within 
municipal limits is 5,618 acres, or 8| square miles; the 
density of population per acre, 63^5 persons. In 1901 the 
death rate was: Foreign, i8'o3 per 1,000 (zymotic, 2 - 86 per 
1,000); native, is'oi per 1,000. Allowing for the fallacy of 
small numbers, allowing also for the fact that there are no very 
poor in Shanghai, and also for the fact that some few sick and 
old people leave for home, this rate is a remarkable one, and 
clearly disproves the alleged unhealthiness of Shanghai. 
Including the shipping population and non-residents, the rate 
was only 2i - 9 per 1,000 in 1901. The chief causes of death 
in that year were tuberculosis and alcoholism. Malaria is of 
a "very mild type, and is decreasing. Typhoid, though more 
prevalent than in England, is of a milder type" (Municipal 
Council Report, 1902). 

Cholera need not be seriously feared. There was an out- 
break in 1902, but not a case from 1897 to 1902. In 1896 


The Native City 

there were 10 cases ; in 1895 there were 20. Of the total 
128 deaths in 1901, 30 per cent, were of persons from 
50 to 80 years of age. 

Health Precautions to be taken. — Drinking water should be 
boiled and filtered. All milk should be boiled. No un- 
cooked vegetables should be eaten. Avoid chills : always be 
too warmly clad rather than too lightly. If damp with per- 
spiration, change. A cholera belt is advisable, though many 
dispense with it. The less alcohol the better. A sun hat is 
indispensable in the hot weather, say from the middle of June 
to the middle of September. Too much exercise is not good 
in the hot weather ; the less the better in the extreme heat. 
Chills caught on returning from tennis" parties have killed more 
than cholera. 

Shanghai Native City 

The voluminous history of Shanghai informs us that the 
site of Shanghai was originally occupied by five villages — 
Whasing, Shunshen, Kochong, Singkium, Kaimi ; that the 
first emperor of the Yuen dynasty (a.d. 1291) established 
a magistrate here, united the villages, and called the place 
Zaunghe (Shanghai), " on the sea." The city, however, 
existed long before this. Mr. S. T. Laisun, in the " Account 
of the Jubilee of Shanghai" {Daily News Office), 1893, gives 
the following account of its origin : — 

"About 304 B.C., in the days of the Fighting Kingdoms, 
Hwang Shieh was the chief preceptor of Yung Yuan, heir- 
apparent to the throne of Ts'u (Hunan, Hupeh, Kiangsi, 
Anhuei, and Kiangsu). In that year the armies of Ts'u were 
defeated by those of Tsin under General Peh Chi. The King 
of Ts'u was so frightened that he sent his son and Hwang 
Shieh as hostages to the court of Tsin (in the west), where 
they remained sixteen years. News came that the King of 
Ts'u was ill. Hwang Shieh managed to get the young prince 
smuggled out of prison and out of the kingdom of Tsin 
disguised as a charioteer, he himself remaining behind, declar- 
ing that the 'oung prince was ill. In three weeks' time, when 

Early Visits of Foreigners 

the prince had had time to reach home and secure the throne 
in case of his father's death, Hwang Shieh informed the angry 
King of Tsin-what he had done. The king was for killing 
him, as was likely ; but by the influence of the prime minister 
he was released, and returned to Ts'u, where the prince, now 
on the throne, received him with open arms, and made him 
governor of Soochow (founded two hundred years before), 
Chingkiang, and Sungkiang. He was struck by the advan- 
tageousness of the site of Shanghai, and founded the city. 

" It early became famous for its cottons and gauzes and as 
a trading place, but was not made a walled city until the year 
a.d. 1554 (thirty-second year of the Ming Emperor Kia 
Tsing), after having suffered severely for a hundred years from 
Japanese pirates. Nothing of great historical importance has 
happened at Shanghai. The Red Head rebellion happened 
shortly before foreigners appeared on the scene. One Sian 
Keun Tsz, ' a well-known loafer,' a ' mean fellow of the baser 
sort,' got up this rebellion, killed the magistrate, and burned 
much of the city, making the Woo Sing Ding, the ' Willow- 
pattern Tea-house,' his headquarters. This was in 1826. He 
was captured, and had his eyes taken out." 

Shanghai is in the foo or prefecture of Sungkiang ; it is 
one of the eight hsien or districts into which that prefecture 
is divided. The district includes about 200 square miles. 

Shanghai Foreign Settlement 

Early Visits of Foreigners 

The commercial advantages of Shanghai were not very 
early perceived by foreigners, the East India Company con- 
fining its attentions to Canton. But Mr. F. Pigou, of the 
Company's factory at Canton, reported favourably on it in 
1756. The next to visit it were Mr. Lindsay and Dr. Gutzlaff 
(after whom the famous island with its signal station, eight 
hours from Shanghai, is named). This was in 1832. "They 
gave a glowing account of its commercial possibility, and were 
much struck with the forest of hundreds of junks' masts on 
the river." 

Conquest of Shanghai 

Conquest of Shanghai 

The Foreign Settlement was the result of the war declared 
by Great Britain against China in 1839, on tne conclusion of 
the military operations in the south, including the taking of 
Hongkong in 1841. The British fleet took Amoy, the 
Chusans, and Ningpo ; and on June 16th, 1842, Sir William 
Parker, the British admiral, with Sir Hugh Gough, the 
commander of the military forces, took Woosung, capturing 
134 guns, also taking Paoshan, a little walled city three miles 
up the Yangtsze side. After a survey of the river, on the 17th 
Lieutenant-Colonel Montgomery led a force of 1,000 men 
inland from Woosung and advanced on Shanghai, the ships 
following up the river. A few shots were fired at the invaders 
from a fort standing on the site of the present British Con- 
sulate, but no harm was done, and the city was found deserted, 
the inhabitants in the act of scurrying away like ants, carrying, 
as many of their belongings away with them as they could. 
Those who are interested in the story of the capture of 
Shanghai ought to read Captain W. H. Hall's book " The 
Nemesis in China " (published 1848). The Nemesis was the 
first steam war-vessel (120 h.-p.) that ever visited the Far 
East. Some particulars given are : — 

" Two hundred and fifty guns were taken at Woosung and 
Paoshan, one an old Spanish gun. The troops engaged were 
1,000 men — the 18th, 49th, and 55th regiments, with the 
Madras Horse artillery, sappers, and miners. Within sight of 
the city on the same side of the river was a long, well-con- 
structed battery, which opened fire on the North Star, but did 
no damage." On reaching the north gate of the city, there 
appeared to be no preparations made for resistance, and the 
only two guns mounted appeared to be harmless enough ; in 
fact, there was none at the gate, and two or three of our men, 
having contrived to get over the wall, opened the gate. We 
are glad to hear that " very little plunder or ' loot ' was taken," 
only a few curios. " The vast number of large trading junks 
surprised every one ; both banks of the river were completely 


Founding of the Foreign Settlement 

lined with them. Several junks were on the stocks — one with 
a mainmast n feet 6 inches in circumference, a little above 
the deck, and 141 feet long. The foreigners were well re- 
ceived by the people, who soon returned to the city. Stores 
were taken ; 68 guns were captured at Shanghai : 1 7 were of 
copper, newly cast; 56 were taken in the battery. Altogether 
j 71 were taken. The ransom for Shanghai paid by the Chinese 
was $300,000." 

Founding of the Foreign Settlement 

After the arrival of Sir Henry Pottinger on the conclusion of 
peace, the formation of a foreign settlement was decided on. 
Its bounds were the Yang-king-pang Creek on the south, the 
Whangpoo on the east, the present Peking Road on the north. 
It must be clearly understood that Shanghai has been from the 
beginning a settlement, not a possession. The British Govern- 
ment annexed Hongkong, which became British territory, 
and subject to British law. The land on which the Foreign 
Settlement of Shanghai was created was, on the other hand, 
only leased to the British Government. That is proved by the 
fact that all the landowners still pay ground rent to the Chinese 
Government. For instance, in the Municipal Council's Report 
for 1902 (p. 455) there is an item " Chinese Government 
Ground Tax (for roads), Tls.372, 57." The Race Club pays about 
Tls.500 ground tax. The existence of a Mixed Court in which 
a Chinese magistrate presides is further conclusive proof as to 
the political standing of Shanghai, and should prevent tourists 
wondering why each foreigner here is under his own consular 
jurisdiction. At 1 first Captain Balfour had no doubt intended 
that the plot of ground marked out should, like Hongkong, be 
British, but he was overruled. 

In 1845 f° ur roa ds were laid out — the Consulate Road (now 
Peking Road), Park Lane (Nanking Road), Ropewalk Road 
(now Kiukiang Road), and Hankow Road. Land regulations 
were drawn up in 1845, and the now world-renowed settlement 
was fairly founded. 


Early Days 

Early Days 

At first H.B.M.'s Consul was the governing authority. In 
1844 a Committee of Roads and Jetties was formed. The 
price of land on the Bund was only 50,000 to 60,000 cash 
($50 to $60) a mow ; to-day it is at least $40,000. A raised 
towing-path ran along the muddy bank of the river. " Most 
of the Bund lots were taken up by 1850." There was no 
bridge over the Yang-king-pang. The Soochow Creek was a 
broad waterway. The mails were carried up from Woosung 
by Chinese boys mounted on ponies, who raced across the 
country to be in first. 

Each hong stood in its own compound ; the heads of the 
firms and the juniors having meals separate, in senior and 
junior messes. Specimens of these old hongs may be seen in 
Ward, Probst & Co.'s hong, 13, Nanking Road, and on the 
right hand of the Pekin Road between the Szechuen and 
Kiangsze Roads. The oldest existing hong is probably 
that occupied by Mittag & Co., at the corner of Kiangse and 
Siking Roads. 

The Triads in Shanghai 

No sooner had the Settlement got over its early troubles 
than it was disturbed by the Triad rebels, who took Nanking 
in 1853 and Shanghai on September 7th, Trade was para- 
lysed ; it was impossible to collect the customs. The result 
was that the British, U.S.A., and French Consuls appointed 
commissioners to collect them (Mr. T. F. Wade, Mr. Lay, and 
Mr. A. C. Smith). Both imperialists and rebels soon became 
involved in difficulties with the foreigners : the imperialists for 
attempting to loot rifles from Messrs Gibb, Livingston & 
Co., and the rebel leader Lew for refusing satisfaction to the 
French Consul for the murder of a catechist. 

Our One Battle 

Thus it came about that on April 4th, 1854, the foreigners 
took the field against the imperialists. The force consisted of 


The Taipings 

the Shanghai Volunteers (led by Mr. T. F. Wade, H.M. Vice- 
Consul), men of H.M.S. Encounter and Grecian and U.S.A. 
Plymouth, the U.S.A. Consul accompanying his men. The 
encounter took place on ground now densely covered with 
houses, where the Fokien Road now is and the Rou Touranne. 
The volunteers had three men wounded, two dying. The 
Encounter and the Grecian had each three men wounded, and 
the Plymouth one killed and four wounded. This was the 
battle of Muddy Flat. The last Shanghai resident who fought 
in it was Mr. Barnes Dallas, who died in 1897. (I am informed 
that there are still — a.d. 1904 — two gentlemen in London 
who took part in the fight.) 

This affair of the Triads had momentous consequences ; in 
fact, it changed the whole character of the Settlement. Some 
twenty thousand Chinese flocked into the Foreign Settlement for 
safety, and foreign landowners built houses for them. Instead 
of being a quiet reserve for foreigners, the Settlement became 
' the home of natives and foreigners intermixed, giving Shanghai 
a unique position among the treaty ports of the East. 

The Taipings 

In i860 Soochow fell into the hands of the Taiping rebels. 
On January 12th, 1862, the rebels appeared before Shanghai 
native city. Barricades has been erected along the Honan 
Road, from which English and Indian troops fired on them, 
the French acting against them from the city wall. The 
foreigners had been able to complete their defences owing to 
an extraordinary fifty-eight hour snowstorm, which began on 
January 28th. The rebels advanced along the line of what 
is now the Bubbling Well Road. There was great excitement 
at this time, and trade was seriously affected. The Taiping 
trouble had the effect of attracting to Shanghai adventurers 
of all nations. It was to prevent them from exercising any 
power by votes that the municipal franchise was fixed so high 
as $50 a month. It was then that Shanghai received the 
name of " A Sink of Iniquity '' which it hardly deserved then, 
and certainly does not now. 



The Sixties 

The rebels were defeated and driven away in 1863, upon 
which a period of great and even inflated prosperity set in, 
consequent on the opening of the Yangtsze to trade. Most of 
the principal public institutions were founded at this time ; 
municipal government was adjusted at last ; immense fortunes 
were made by land speculation. It is not surprising that 
there was a relapse at the end of this decade. 

1870 to the Present Time 

From this time Shanghai has exhibited a picture of steady 
progress, exciting events of a public nature being few. The 
foreign population "at each quinquennial period since 1870 
shows the following expansion : 1,666, 1,673, 2,197, 3,673, 
3,821, 4,684, 6,774." The enormous increase between 1895 
and 1900 is remarkable. The native population shows a 
similar growth since 1870: 75,000, 96,000, 108,000, 168,000, 
241,000, 345,000. It is difficult to realise how small Shanghai 
was, even in 1870, compared with to-day. There were no 
houses west of Museum Road : nearly all the upper parts of 
the Settlement west of the Honan Road were unoccupied. 
Hongkew had but few inhabitants. 

In 1874, on May 3rd, there were riots in the French Settle- 
ment, owing to an attempt to interfere with the " Ningpo Joss- 
house.'' Eight natives were killed. In 1880 Prince Henrich 
of Prussia, the Duke of Genoa, and General Gordon visited 
Shanghai. In 1887 the Jubilee of Queen Victoria was 
celebrated with great splendour, and in 1893 the jubilee of 
the founding of the Settlement. 

On April 5th, 1897, occurred the Wheelbarrow Riot, owing 
to a proposal to increase the licence fees, the Council 
surrendering to the coolies. An indignation meeting was 
held condemning the Council, upon which that body 

In 1898 there were renewed riots on the French Concession 


The American Settlement 

■over the Ningpo Joss-house. In 1899 the Settlement was 
■enlarged to its present area ; and in 1900 the Boxer outbreak 
created much excitement and even some alarm. Foreigners 
crowded into Shanghai from all parts of China, while at the 
same time there was an immense exodus of Chinese. The 
alarm was natural, owing to the uncertainty as to whether the 
outbreak would extend to mid-China, and the almost total and 
unusual absence of foreign ships-of-war at the time. With the 
advent of foreign troops alarm disappeared. The troops were 
removed in January, 1903. There is no doubt that the Boxer 
outbreak had for its consequence the thorough advertising of 
Shanghai throughout the world, so that the next quinquennial 
census will show a vaster increase of population than any 
preceding one. 

The American Settlement 

The following is the account given by Maclellan in his 
<; Story of Shanghai " of the origin of this settlement : — 

"In December of 1863, Hongkew, or the American 
Settlement, was formally incorporated with the so-called British 
Settlement. Its residents were to pay half the cost of policing 
it, that being considered a fair proportion, as much of the 
■expenditure under that head was owing to the large number of 
•sailors who lived in the district. It does not appear that 
the United States ever received any concession of what is 
called the American Settlement, or that it was specially set 
.apart for citizens of that country. No negotiations about the 
settlement or lands in Hongkew ever took place between the 
Government of the United States and the Chinese authorities. 
The treaty between China and the United States gave citizens 
of the latter the same right to acquire lands for residence and 
other purposes as was given under the British and French 
treaties, and this was made use of probably about 1850. Some 
years afterwards the United States Consulate was established 
.in Hongkew, and an American church and mission houses were 
..built there, and hence the district became generally known as 


The French Settlement 

the American Settlement. The boundaries were settled in 
1862 by Mr. Seward, U.S.A. Consul, as follows : " The Soochow 
Creek from a point opposite the entrance of the Defence Canal 
to the Huangpu River ; thence at low-water mark to the mouth 
of the creek, entering the Huangpu near the lower limit of the 
anchorage called the Yangtszepu, westward three li along 
the line of that creek, thence in a straight line to the point 
of beginning." 

For a long time Hongkew was but sparsely populated, the 
tide covering parts of Broadway in the sixties. 

The French Settlement 

{"Concession Franfaise") 

The French who took part with the British in the conquest 
of Shanghai had a settlement granted to them in June, 1849, 
by " Luh, intendant of Soochow and the viceroy of the Two 
Kwangs," with the usual rights to French subjects. The 
U.S.A. Consul protested against the French having a separate 

The district allotted to France is contiguous to the wall of 
the native city. It is bounded on the east by the Whangpoo, 
on the west by the temple of the god of war, on the north 
by the Yang-king-pang Creek, and on the south by the native 
city. The Settlement was enlarged westward in 1899. 


The history of the French Settlement is very much the same 
as that of the International Settlement, except that the French 
have had more conflicts with the natives than the British and 

On May 3rd, 1874, owing to the making of two new roads 
near the Ningpo Joss-house, the Chinese attacked the French in- 
spector of roads and his family, and broke into the neighbouring 
houses, throwing a lady missionary, Miss Mitchell, downstairs. 
She only saved herself by crying out that she was not French. 
Marines from a French gun-boat were landed, and eight 


The French Settlement 

Chinese were killed in the affair. For other conflicts over 
that bone of contention the Ningpo Joss-house, see the 
history of the International Settlement. 


The government is by a Municipal Council. It differs from 
the council of the International Settlement in being more 
under the control of the French Consul-General than the 
International Settlement is under the control of the Consuls- 
General of the Powers. For a long time its functions were 
very uncertain, and in 1865 all the members resigned. The 
present regulations governing it are dated April 14th, 1868, 
when Vicomte Brenier de Montmorand was Consul-General. 

The French Consul-General is ex-officio chairman, but he 
generally delegates his power to a chairman selected by the 
council, who must be a Frenchman. There are eight 
councillors — four French and four other nationalities. The 
Consul-General may suspend the council for a maximum period 
of three months, but he must report his action at once to the 
French Minister at Peking, the ultimate decision resting with 
the French Government. The franchise is more varied and 
is lower than that of the International Settlement. The 
conditions conferring a right to vote for Frenchmen and 
strangers over 2 1 years of age are : — 

(1) To be a registered landowner in the settlement, whether 
of French or other nationality. 

(2) To pay an annual house-rent of 1,000 francs at least. 

(3) To have lived within the settlement for three months, and 
to prove an income of at least 4,000 francs a year. 

The functions of the council are similar to those of the 
council of the International Settlement. Various attempts have 
been made to unite the two settlements, but all negotiations 
have failed. The convenience of the public and economy 
would both be served by the union. The objections have 
always come from the French authorities. 

209 14 

The International Settlement 

Mixed Court. 

For Chinese there is a Mixed Court, as in the International 
Settlement. The relation of the French magistrate to the 
Chinese official is precisely the same, I am informed on the 
best authority, as that of the foreign assessor and the Chinese 
magistrate in the International Mixed Court. There is this 
difference, however — the only languages employed in this 
Mixed Court are French and Chinese, which is very ridiculous 
and awkward, seeing that the one foreign language best known 
to the Chinese is English. 

Government of the "international" Settlement 

The most casual visitor will be interested in a slight sketch 
of the government of Shanghai. This is by means of various 
enactments called the " Land Regulations." The first were 
passed in 1845, an d were for British subjects only. In 1851 
the Taotai issued a proclamation in which merchants of all 
nations are permitted to build in the settlements. 

New regulations were issued in 1854, in consequence of 
the vast numbers of Chinese crowding into the Settlement, 
contrary to the intention of the founders. The Municipal 
Council was formed, and met for the first time on July 17th, 
1854. The legal status of the council was questioned by 
H.B.M.'s legal officers at Hongkong, with the result that for 
many years the Council took legal action through the Consuls. 
About 1863 local government was in great confusion, owing 
to the question of the Chinese in the settlement, H.B.M.'s 
Minister at Peking denying that the council had any right to 
interfere between the Chinese in the settlement and the native 
authorities ; doubt was thrown also on the right to tax Chinese 

In 1866 a step forward was taken when the land renters 
were consulted as to the framing of the new regulations. 
These were issued in 1869 for the so-called " British Settle- 
ment," with which the " American Settlement " had been 
amalgamated in 1863. The French Consul-General claimed 

The International Settlement 

the right to vote on the regulations of the other settlements, 
despite the fact that the French had framed regulations of 
their own. 

In 1882 fresh regulations were enacted by the Ministers of 
the Treaty Powers in Peking somewhat curtailing the powers 
of the council. 

In 1898 new regulations, which are now in force, were 
enacted. At the same time the hitherto so-called British 
and American Settlements, by agreements among the Powers, 
became what is known as the International Settlement, and had 
its boundaries enlarged. It is, however, very doubtful whether 
the British Government has actually relinquished its claim to 
the old British Settlement. 

The Council has charge of police, licensing, etc. It consists 
of nine members elected annually. Householders paying 
Tls. 50 per month rent have a vote. The annual meeting 
of ratepayers is held in March. This is the final authority 
for all expenditure. 

In addition to the Municipal Council there is a large variety 
of judicial authorities in Shanghai. Hardly any place in the 
world has such a mixture of governments. 

The Court of Consuls, established in 1869, enables persons 
to sue the Municipal Council before it. It is also the inter- 
mediary between the Municipal Council and the Foreign 
Ministers at Peking. 

The litigation of British subjects is amply provided for. 
The Supreme Court, established in 1865, originally had 
jurisdiction over British subjects in China and Japan; but 
now of China only, since the cessation of exterritoriality in 
the latter country. Sir Edmund Hornby was first Chief 
Justice. This court is the court of appeal from the British 
Consuls in China. The court-house is behind the British 
Consulate buildings, of which it is part. It fronts Yuen- 
ming-yuen Road. Sir H. S. Wilkinson is Chief Justice, 
F. S. A. Bourne, Esq., Assistant Judge. There is also a 
British police magistrate for petty cases. This court meets 
in a room to the right after entering the main door of 
H.B.M.'s Consulate. 

211 15 

Commerce of Shanghai 

For all other nationalities the Consul-General or Consul is 
the judicial authority. 

For Chinese there is> the Mixed Court. This was established 
in 1863 for the trial of Chinese in cases in which foreigners 
are involved. The Chinese magistrate is assisted by foreign 
assessors — one American, one British, one German — in turns. 
The court-house was in the Nanking Road, but a new Mixed 
Court-house was opened in 1899 on the North Chekiang Road. 
The best approach to it is along the North Honan Road, and 
up the Boone Road to the left. Visitors ought to see the 
Mixed Court in session. The Chinese mandarin and foreign 
assessor sit on a raised platform, the mandarin being assisted 
in his' deliberations by numerous cups of tea. The prisoners 
are brought in by yamen runners, and kneel before the 
magistrate. The only native punishments inflicted are the 
cangue (a wooden board round the neck of the culprit) and 
bambooing and imprisonment. Those who desire to witness 
this form of punishment may do so about 4 p.m. 


A few particulars as to the commerce of Shanghai may be 
acceptable to the tourist. From the figures given, its title to 
be called a "vast emporium" will be evident. Value will be 
given in Haikwan taels. The Haikwan tael was in 1902 
equivalent in English money to 2s. jd., American (gold) 
to $o'63, French to 3-28 francs, German to 2-65 marks, in 
Mexican dollars to $1-51, "at the average sight exchange 
on London, New York, Paris, Berlin, Calcuttta, and Hong- 
kong respectively for 1902." The picul is equivalent to 
133^ lb. avoirdupois. The figures are from the Returns 
of Trade issued by the Inspectorate-General of Customs 
for 1902. 

At the whole of the Treaty Ports of China the total revenue 
collected was, in 1902, Haikwan Tls. 30,007,044; the value 
of the net imports was Haikwan Tls. 315,363,905, and of 


Commerce of Shanghai 

the exports Haikwan Tls. 214,181,584. "Shipping entries 
from foreign ports were 8,737 vessels, aggregating 7,224,000 
tons ; coastwise entries were 25,678 vessels, making' 19,749,000 
tons. The total tonnage, entries, and clearances was 53,990,000 
tons; and of this total Great Britain contributed 50 per cent.; 
China, 1 7 per cent. ; Japan, 14 per cent. ; Germany, 1 3 per cent. ; 
France, i - 5o per cent.; Norway, 1-50 per cent. ; Russia and 
America, 1 per cent." 

The share of Shanghai in this commerce will be appreciated 
from the following figures : The revenue collected by the 
Customs at Shanghai was Haikwan Tls. 10,814,077,74, or 30 
per cent, of the whole. The gross value of the foreign goods 
imported was Haikwan Tls. 183,295,031, of which Haikwan 
Tls. 182,179,795 was from foreign countries and Hongkong. 
The value of goods re-exported was Haikwan Tls. 129,900,084, 
mainly to the northern and Yangtsze ports, leaving the net 
total foreign imports Haikwan Tls. 53,394,947. "The total 
exports of local origin amount to Haikwan Tls. 76,832,103. 
The gross value of the trade of the port was Haikwan 
Tls. 346,122,864." 

It is not possible to enter into details as to the articles of 
commerce represented by these figures. The imports include 
every species of goods. Cotton goods of all kinds were 
valued in 1902 at Haikwan Tls. 127,545,309, and metals 
at Haikwan Tls. 10,574,928, and sundries at Haikwan 
Tls. 136,948,982. The exports include sesamum seed, bean- 
cakes, beans, hides, oils, feathers, hemp, animal tallow, wool, 
straw-braid, etc. 

The visitor with time to spare might well walk along the 
wharves, when he will gain a good idea of the immensity of 
the trade of Shanghai. The wharves to visit are : 

Japanese Wharf. Go along Whangpoo Road and turn to 
the right down Woochang Road. 

The Associated Wharves. Along the Broadway, and turn 
down Keechong or Yuenfong Roads. 

French Bund. Along the English Bund, and cross the 
Yang-king-pang Creek. 

A considerable manufacturing industry is carried on in 


tJommeree of Shanghai 

cotton spinning, silk filatures, feather cleaning, match making, 
packing factories, paper making, flour milling. These in- 
dustries, except the great packing establishments, are situated 
along the Broadway and on the banks of the Soochow and 
Hongkew Creeks. It is not worth while giving particulars, 
as they are not open to the public. Those anxious to visit 
them must apply to the managers of the various concerns, and 
try their luck at getting permission. 



Actovs, Chinese, 18 
Airing the Bird, 17 
Alcock, Sir Rutherford, 

Amateur Dramatic Club, 

26, 182 
American Association, 


— Bible Society, 149 

— Presbyterian Mission 

Press, 27, 149 

— Settlement, 60, 207 

— University Club, 173 

— Women's Literary 

Association, 172 
Anglo-Chinese College, 

Aquarius Co., 64 
Arsenal, 87 
Asiatic Society, 171 
Associations (see Clubs 
and Societies) — 
American Association 

of China, 163 
— Women, 172 
British Colonials, 164 
Chamber of Com- 
merce, 173 
China Association, 

First Aid, 175 
German, 163 
Lancastrians, 165 
Marine Engineers, 169 
Mercantile Marine, 

Associations (con- 
tinued) — 
Pilots, 174 
St. George's, 163 
Stockbrokers, 173 
Swiss, 164 

Young Men's Chris- 
tian, 169 
Astor House Hotel, 61 
Avenue de Paul Brunat, 


Baby Tower, 86 
Balfour, Captain, 203 
Bambooing, 57 
Band, Town, 2, 15, 162 
Banks, vii 
Barometer, 198 
Baseball, 190 
Battle of Muddy Flat, 

Beale, T. C. , 29 
Beggars, 45, 88, 103, 114 
Bell Tower, 88 
Bible Societies — 

American, 149 

British, 149 
Birds of China, 172 
Boat-house, 26 
Books and Maps, xi 
Boone, Bishop, 39 
Bore (Hangchow), 139 
Bowling Alley, 13, 191 
Boxers, 93, 207 

Bridgman Home, 84, 

British and Foreign Bible 
Society, 149 

— China Association, 


— Colonial Association, 


— Consulate, 3 

— Gaol, 17, 27 

— Post Office, a, 27 

— Settlement, 203, 211 
Broadway, 60 
Bubbling Well, 35 

Road, 28 

Buddha, 58, 66, 69, 104 
Buddhist Hell, 67, 69 

— Nunnery, 46, 58 
Bund, Chinese, no 

— French, 94 

— The, 1 

Burial, Chinese, 71 
Butterfield & Swire, 95 

Candareens, vi 

Cangue, 16 

Cantonese Tea Houses, 

Carriages, xiv 
Carter Road, 74 
Cash, vi 
Cathedral, Holy Trinity, 

24. 143 
— Tung-ka-doo, 108 
Catty, vii 



Cemeteries — 
i. Chinese — 

Cantonese, 72, 74 

Nanking, 71 

NienTsungDien, 86 

Soochow, 70, 73 
u. Foreign — 

Bubbling Well, 34 

Japanese, 74 

Jewish, 32 

Pah-sin-jao, 18, 104 

Parsee, 20 

Shantung Road, 21 
Census, 199 
Central Hotel, viii 
Cents, vi, vii 
Chamber of Commerce, 

Chang Su Ho's Gardens, 

33. 155 
Chartered Bank of India, 

Chiangwan, 133 
China Association, 164 

— Branch, R.A.S. , 171 

— Inland Mission, 50, 


— Merchants S.N. Co., 

10 , 106 

— Ponies, 77, 181 

— Tract Society, 149 
Chinese Actors, 18 

— Bund, 109 

— Bureau of Foreign 

Affairs, 33 

— Christian Knowledge 

Society, 149 

— Festivals, 156 

— Labour, 66 
Chinkiang, 141 
Cholera, 199 
Chow, General, 125 
Chow-chow Water, * 
Churches — 

Baptist, 144 
Cathedral, 24, 143 
Church of our 

Saviour, 61, 144 
— the Sacred Heart, 

So, 144 

Church Es(continued) — 
German, 64, 144 
Moore Memorial, 17 
Mosque, 144 
St. Joseph's, 97, 144 
Seaman's Mission, 144 
Synagogue, 27 
Tung-ka-doo Cathe- 
dral, 108 
Union Church, 25, 

City God, 119 

— Moat, 101 

— Native, 112 

— Walls, in, 113, 124 
Clubs (see Associations 

and Societies) — 
Amateur Dramatic, 

American University, 

Baseball, 190 
Bowling Alley, 13, 191 
Concordia, 166 
Country, 32, 33, 167 
Cricket, 30, 177 
Customs, 170 
Drag Hunt, 189 
Football, 188 
French Amateur Dra- 
matic, 182 
German Garden, 171 
— Tennis Club. 31 
Golf, 30, 183 
Gun, 190 
Hockey, 191 
Masonic, 168 
Midget Sailing, 188 
Paper Hunt, 184 
Polo, 189 
Portuguez, 171 
Race, 30, 31, 179 
Recreation, 30, 188 
Recreio, 192 
Rowing, 26, 182 
Shanghai, 10, 165 
Smoking Concert, 192 
Sportsman's Gun, 190 
Swimming Bath, 30, 

Clubs (continued) — 
Tennis, 191 
University (U.S.A.), 


Volunteer, 15, 171 

Yacht Club, 185 

Young Men'sChristian 
Association, 169 
Coffee Tavern, 175 
Coinage, Bad, vi 
Commerce, 213 
Committee of Roads and 

Jetties, 204 
Concordia Club, 166 
Concrete Ware Yard, 51 
Confucian Temple, 121, 

Confucius, 122 
Consular Flats, 3 
Consuls, Consulates: 

American, x, 64 

Austrian, x, 64 

Belgian, a 

British, x, 3 

Danish, x 

Dutch, x 

French, x, 94 

German, x, 40, 64 

Italian, a 

Japanese, x, 64 

Portuguese, x 

Russian, x 

Spanish, x 

Swedish, a 
Cotton, 66, 196 
— Mills, 65 
Country Club, 32, 33, 


Consuls, 211 

French Mixed, 209 

Mixed, 52, 57, 203 

Police (British), 211 

Supreme (British), 211 

City, 83, 101 

Defence, 17, 28 

Hongkew, 43 

Sicca wei, 77 


Creeks [continued) — 
Soochow, 42, 74, 182, 

Yang-king-pang, 11, 

Crematorium, 34 
Cricket Club, 30, 177 
Crime, 160 
Cross-country Riding, 

Cunningham, Ed., 29 
Curios, 20, 103, 115, 

Custom House, 8 
Customs Club, 170 

— Imperial Maritime, 

204, 212 

— Signal Station, 9, 130 

Dai Waung Miao, 16, 

27, 71 
Daily News Offices, 8 
Dallas, Barnes, 205 
Dead, Feast of, 157 
Death Rate, 199 
Defence Creek, 17, 28 
Dents, 6 
Deutsch - Asiatische 

Bank, 8 
Deutsche Vereinigung, 

Deutscher Concert 

Verein, 173 

— Gartenclub, 171 

— Gesangverein, 173 
Drag-Hunt, 189 
Dragon Boat Festival, 

Drama, 20 
Dramatic Clubs, 182 
Docks, 64 
Dollar, vii 
Drill Hall, 15 
Drop Nets, 131 
Drum Tower, 88 
Du Bose, Rev. H. C, 

S3, 89, 119, 121, 

128, 139 

Early Visits of Foreign- 
ers, 201 
Earth God, 90 
" East of Asia," 78 
Education (see Schools 

and Missions) 
Eight Immortals, 56 
Electric Lighting, 51, 

Engineers and Archi- 
tects, 174 
European Stores, xvii 
Ever- Victorious Army, 

Excursions, 132 
Exports, 212 

Farming, 196 
Farnham, Boyd & Co., 

64, 130 
Fathers of the Settle- 
ment, 29 
Fearon's, 6 
Feasts, Chinese— 
Chinese New Year, 

Dai Wong, 157 
Dragon Boat, 131, 158 
Lanterns, 157 
Mid-Autumn, 158 
Tsing Ming, 157 
FSng-shui, 93 
Feng-wan-shan, 142 
Fire Alarm Stations, 
50, 159, 161 

— Brigade, 161 

— God, 9 

— Stations, Central, 22 

French, 99 

Fireworks, 33 

First Aid, 175 
Fish, Sacred, 90 
Florence Crittenton 

Home, 175 
Foochow Road, 18 

Football, 188 

Fortune Tellers, 100 

Four Heavenly Kings, 

Freemasonry, 151 

French Amateur Dra- 
matic Society, 182 

— Bund, 9S 

— Consulate, 94 

— Settlement, 208 

— Town Hall, 99 
Fruits, 42, 197 

Game, 193 
Gaol (British), 17 
Garden Bridge, ±, 41, 60 
Gaedens — 

Cantonese, 54. 

Chang Su Ho's, 33, 

Chinese, 26, ri6, 155 
Public, 3, 153 
Yu Yuen, 34, 155 

Gas Works, 27 

Gates of the City — 
East, 96, 123, 127 
New North, 103, 113 
North, 103, 105, 113, 

South, in 
West, 84, in 

German Association, 163 

— Concert Club, 173 

— Consulate, x, 40, 64 

— Garden Club, 171 

— Gesangverein, 173 

— Literary Club, 173 
Gods — 

Amida, 47 
Ananda, 89 
Buddha, 37, 46, 58, 67, 

69, 89, 104 
Buddha of Three Ages, 

Ching Tsiang Ching, 

City, 119 



Gods i 

Earth, go, 127 
Eight Immortals, 56, 

Fire, 9 
Four Heavenly Kings, 

Goddess of Heaven, 


Infernal Regions, 58 
Kitchen, 127 
Kwanyin, 14, 47, 53, 

58, 69, 91 
Liu Tsiang Ching, 53 
Lohans, 47, 90, 91 
Medicine, 48, 126 
Midoo, 14, 37, 46, 69, 

88, 115 
Mo-san, 85 
O-mi-doo, 47 
Scholars, 122 
Shang-Ti, 122 
Snakes, 119 
Taoist Trinity, 115 
Three Brothers, 35 
Three Pure Ones, 53, 

59- "5 
Thunder, 71, 84 
Tien Waung Dien, 88 
Wang Lo Yah, 36 
War, 55, 59, 126 
Warrior of Heaven, 


Waydoo, 14, 46, 69, 

88, 115 
Wealth, 55 
Wenchang, 117 
Zung Wong 1 , 126 

Golf, 30, 183 

Gough, Sir H. , 135, 202 

Government of Shang- 
hai, 210 

Graves, 72 

Guides, 106, 112 

Guild Houses— 
Cantonese, no 
Hwuy-chau, 86 
Paw Aye Dong, 15 
Shanse Bankers, 54 
Swatow, 109 

Guild House (con- 
tinued) — 
Timber Merchants, 
107, 108 
Guard Houses, 113, 115 
Gun Club, 190 
Gutzlaff, Dr., 201 

Haining, 139 
Han Dynasty, 35 
Hangchow, 138 

— Bore, r39 
Hankow Road, 9, 203 
Health, 199 

— Offices, 23 

— Precautions, 200 
Helvetia (Club),. 164 
Hills, The, 142, 196 
Hockey Club, 191 
Holidays, viii, 156 
Honan Road Bridge, 43 
Hongkew — 

Descriptive, 41 

General, 41, 207 

Market, 45, 46, 50 

Park, 155 
Hongkong and Shanghai 

Bank, 9 
Horses (Riding, etc.), 

xiv, 194 
Hospitals — 

Chinese, 21 

General, 46 

Isolation, 51 

Kwang Zan Ee Yuen, 

Margaret Williamson, 

86, 147 
St. Luke's, 50, 148 
Shantung Road, 21 
Victoria Nursing 

Home, 49 
Hotels, viii 
Houseboat Excursions, 

13 6 . r 3 8 
Houseboats, 136 

Huangpu (see Whang- 

Hung-jao Road, 38, 75, 

Ice-houses, 57 
Imports, 212 
Incense Burners, xix 
Indian Wares, xix 
Inner Bailey, 114 
International Settlement, 

Irrigation, 196 

Japanese Curios, xix 
Jardine's, 6 
Jessfield, 30, 148 
— Road, 38, 76 
Jesuits, 76, 77 
Jinrickshaws, xiii 
Joo-i, 86 
Junks, in 


Kading, 138 
Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., 10 
Kiangnan Arsenal, 87 
Kwang Zan Ee Yuen, 

Kwangfoo, 141 
Kwangti, 121 
Kwanyin, 14, 47, 53, 58 


Labour, Chinese, 66 
Lancastrians, 165 
Land Regulations, 3, 
203, 210 



Lanterns, Feast of, 157 
Laotsze, 53 
Library, Public, 155 
Likin Station, 76 
Lions, Stone, 52 
Litterarischer Abend, 

Little, R. W., 3 
Livery Stables, xiv 
Lockhart, Dr., 21 
Lohans, 47 
London Missionary 

Society, 20, 145 
Loong-fei Bridge, 28 
Loongwha Pagoda, 82, 

88, 92 
Louza, 16 

— Police Station, 16 
Love Lane, 33 
Lyceum Theatre, 26, 

Macduff, N. C. R., 29 

Mace, vi 

Maclellan, J. W. , 3, 24 

McTyere Home, 17 

Mail Steamers, xvi 

— Signals, 130 

Malaria, 199 

Maloo, 28 

Margary, Augustus Ray- 
mond, 2 

Marine Engineers' 

Institute, 13, 169 

Central, 15 
Hongkew, 45, 50 

Masonic Hall, 5, 168 

Masonry, 151, 168 

Medhurst, Dr., 21, 25, 


Medicine God, 48 

Mercantile Marine 

Officers' Associa- 
tion, 168 

Meteorology of Shang- 
hai, 198 

Mexican Dollar, vi 
Mid-Autumn Festival, 

Midget Sailing Club, 188 
Midoo, 14, 37, 46, 69, 

88, irs 
Mills — 
Cotton, 65 
Flour, 67, 75, 214 
Missions — 

Baptist, Seventh Day 
- (U.S.A.), 77, 147 
—Southern (U.S.A.), 

Catholic (see Sicca- 

wei), 77, 95, 148 
China Inland Mission, 

50, 148 
Church Missionary 

Society, 146 
Foreign Christian 

(U.S.A.), 147 
London Missionary 

Society, 20, T45 
Methodist, Southern 

(U.S.A.), 49. 83. 

146, 149 
Presbyterian, Northern 

(U.S.A.), 146, 149 
Protestant Episcopal 

(U.S.A.), 39, 148 
Women's Union, 86, 

Mixed Court, 52, 57, 
203, 211 

French, 210 

Moat, City, 10 1 
Monastery, 88 
Money, v 
Monks, 88, 92 
Monuments — 
Admiral Protet, 99 
litis, 6 
Margary, 2 
Morgan, Win. de, and 
R. Burn Anderson, 

Parkes, Sir Harry, 7 
Taiping Officers, 5 
Widow's, 31 


Chinese — 

Cantonese, 71 

Nanking, 71 

Ningpo, 71 

Soochow, 73 
Mosque, 144 
Motu, 140 
Mow, vii 
Muddy Flat, Battle of, 

Muirhead, Dr., 146 
Mulberries, 197 
Municipal Council, 210 

— Offices, 23 

— Slaughter Houses, 51 
Museum, 26 

Nanking Road, 12, 203 
Nantao, 106 
Nanyang College, 81 
Native City, ir2 
Walls, 124 

— Stores, xix 
Naziang, 138 
"Nemesis in China,'' 

58, 202 
New Year (Chinese), 156 
Newspapers, xii 
Ningpo Joss-house, 83, 

206, 208 

— People, 83 

— Wood-carving, xx 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, 

Nursing Home, 49 

Observatory, 80 
Opium Hulks, 7 
— Shops, 98 



Pa Sien, 56 
Pagoda, 82, 93 
Pah-sin-jao, 18 
Pailow, 87, 133 
Paosan, 134, 135, 202 
Paper Hunt, 184 
— • Money, vi 
Parent, Honouring, 93 
Parker, Dr. A. P. , 92 
Parkes, Sir Harry, 7 
Parks, 153, 155 
Parsee Cemetery, 20 
Paw Aye Dong, 15 

— Tuck Aye, 46 
Pawnshops, Chinese, 43 
Peach Orchards, 87, 123 
Peaches, 197 

Peking Road, 27 
Philanthropy, 174 
Photographic Materials, 

— ■ Society, Amateur, 172 

— Subjects, 41, 42, 43, 

77, 84, 100, 103, 116, 

Picul, vii 
Pidgin-English, i 
Pilots, 174 
Point, The, 67 
Police, 160 

— Court, H.B.M. Con- 

sular, 4 
Police Stations— 

Central, 22 

Hongkew, 50 

Louza, 16 

Yangtszepoo, 66 
Polo, 189 
Ponies, China, 181 
Pootung, 129 

— Hotel, 129, 131 
Population, 206 

— Native City, 113 
Portuguez Club, 171 
Post Offices, a 

— Boats, 2 

Press, Mission, 27, 149 
Priests, 89 

Prisoners, 16 
Procession, Dai Wong, 

Protet, Admiral, 99 
Public Band, 2, 15, 162 
— Gardens, 3, 153 

Quai de France, 96 

— de Keen Le Yuen, 94 

— de la Breche, 101 

— des Fosses, 96, 101 
Queen of Heaven, Tem- 
ple of, 52 

Race Club, 30, 31 

Races, 180 

Racing Records, 181 

Railway Station, 57, 132 

Railways, 132 

Rain, 198 

Rape Harvest, 196 

Rebels — 

Taipings, 205 

Triads, 204 
Recreation Club, 31 

— Fund, 3, 28, 176 

— Ground, 30, 154, 177 

New, 133, 154 

Recreio Club, 192 

Red Joss-house, 67 
Religions of China, 89 
Restaurants, ix 
Ricci, Father, 78 
'Rickshaws, xiii 
Riding, 194 
Rifle Association, 192 

— Butts, 57, 58, 133 

Avenue de Paul 

Brunat, 105 
Broadway, 60 
Bubbling Well, 28 
Canton, 20 
Carter, 74 

Roads {continued) — 

Chinese Bund, 109 

Fokien, 20 

Foochow, 18, 20 

French Bund, 95 

— Siccawei, 77, 105 

Haining, 46 

Hankow, 9, 203 

Honan, 20 

Hnng-jao, 38, 76, 80 

Hupeh, 20, 23 

Jessfield Road, 38, 75 

Kiangse Road, 26 

Kiukiang, 20, 203 

Nanking, 12, 203 

Ningpo, 21 

Quai de France, 106 

Peking, 27 

Robison, 39, 75 

Rubicon, 38, 76 

Rue de 1'Administra- 
tion, 100 

Rue de Palikao, 83 

Rue du Consulat, 97 

Rue Montauban, 97 

Seward, 43, 68 

Shanse, 20 

Shantung, 20 

Siccawei, 38, 77 

Sinza, 70 

Soochow, 25 

Sungkiang, 20 

Szechuen, 27 

Yangtszepoo, 65 
Rowing Club, 182 
Russo-Chinese Bank, 8 

Sailing, 185 

Sailors' Home, 65, 173 

St. Andrew's Society, 

St. George's Farm, 35, 

— — Society, 163 
St. John's College, 39, 

x 5° 


St. Joseph's Church, 97, 

St. Patrick's Society, 165 

Sampans, xv 

Satin, xix, 30 

Schools & Colleges — 
Anglo-Chinese, 49,150 
Cantonese, 151 
Convent, 148 
Ellis Kadoorie, 150 
French Municipal, 150 
German, 150 
London Mission Col- 
lege, 150 
Nanyang College, 81 
New Chinese Public, 

Public, 49, 149 
St. John's, 39, 150 
Siccawei, 148 
Thomas Hanbury, 50, 

Scholastic Work, 79 
Scott, Sir Gilbert, 25 
Seamen's Mission, 175 
Settlements — 
American, 207 
British, 203 
International, 210 
Seward, Mr. , 208 
Seward Road, 43, 68 
Shaftesbury House, 175 
Shanghai — 
American Settlement, 

Area, 199 
Census, 199 
Club, io, 165 
Commerce of, 212 
Conquest of, 202 
Death Rate, 199 ' 
Description of, 196 
Founding of Foreign 

Settlement, 203 
Government, 209, 210 
Health of, 199 
History of, 19s 
Legal Status, 203 
Library, 155 
Meteorology, 198 

Shanghai (conttt.) — 

Native City, 200 

Physical Features, 196 

Rainfall, 198 

Riding Course, 28, 179 

Trade of, 213 
Shang-Ti, 122 
Shanse Bankers' Guild, 


Shantung Road, 20 

Ship-building, 64 

Shipping Communica- 
tion, xv 

Shooting, 193 

Siccawei, 77, 80 

— Road, 38, 81 
Signal Station, 94 

— ■ Station Customs, 130 

— Shipping, 130 
Sikhs, 29 

Silk, xix 

Sing Sing Aye, 58 

— Zing Aye, 58 
Sinza, 69 

Slaughterhouse, 5r 
Smoking Concert Club, 

Societies ( see Clubs and 
Associations) — 

Benevolent, 175 

China Branch R.A.S., 

Coffee Tavern, 175 

Engineers' and Archi- 
tects', 174 

Florence Crittenton 
Home, 175 

German Choir Union, 


— Concert, 173 

— Literary, 173 
Horticultural, 172 
Photographic (Ama- 
teur), 172 

Prevention of Cruelty 

to Animals, 174 
Royal Asiatic, 171 
St. Andrew's, 164 
St. George's, 163 
St. Patrick's, 165 

Societies [conti nued) — 
Society for the Diffu- 
sion of Christian and 
General Knowledge, 
— Preventi on o f 
Cruelty to Animals, 

Union Church Literary 

and Social Guild, 172 
Soochow, 139 
Soochow Creek, 42, 74, 

183. 195 
Spirit Wall, 91 
Sportsman's Gun Club, 

Stables, xiv 
Steamers, xv 
Stevenside, 86 

Foreign, xvii 

Chinese, xviii 
Su Family, 78 
Swimming Bath, 30 
Swiss Association, 164 
Szechuen Road, 27 

Ta Hoo, 139 

Tael, vi 

— Haikwan, 212 

Taipings, 205 

Tea-house (City), 116 

Tea-houses, Cantonese, 

Telegraph Offices, xi 
Temples — 

1. Foreign Settle- 

ment — 
Bubbling Well, 35 
Buddhist Nunnery, 

46, 58 
Dai Waung Miao, 

16, 27, 71 
Dien Zaung Waung, 

Foo Li Zen Yuen 


Temples (continued)— 
God of Thunder, 84 
Hwong Miao, 14 
Kwangti, 55, 120 
Li Tsoo Dien, 84 
Loongwha, 81, 88 
Pootu, 104 
Queen of Heaven, 52 
Silk Guild, 27 
Sing Sing Aye, 58 
Sing Zing Aye, 58 
Tah Ying Pau Dien, 

Tien Hon Kong, 52 
Wan Doo Siensang, 

Yangtszepoo, 66 
Zen Sung Aye, 27 
Zung Au Aye, 35 
Zung Che Dong, 17 
Zung Wong Miao, 

2. Native City — 
City (Chief), 116, 119 
Confucius, 121, 122 
Da Ching, 125 
Emperor's, 123 
FirstGate of Heaven, 

God of War, 120 
Goddess of Mercy, 

King of Heaven, 88 
Scholars, 117 
Ta Vung Leu, 127 
Three Em perors , 1 19 
Tien Ih Koh, no 
— Zung Dien, 122 
TsungWooDay, 115 
Vun Tsang Dien, 

Lyceum, 26, 152 
Native, 19 

Temperature, 198 
Tennis, 191 

So, IS° 
Thorburn, Wm. ( 29 
Tien Hon Kong, 52, 6j 
Tortures, 70 < 
Town Band, 2, 15 

— Hall, 15 

— Hall, French, 99 
Train, Soochow, 43 
Triads, 204 
Trinity Cathedral, 24 
Tsing Ming Festival, 157 
Tung-ka-doo Cathedral, 



Union Church, 25, 143 
— Church Literary Guild, 

Unkaza, 39 

Vegetables, 42, 197 
Victoria Nursing Home, 

Volunteer Club, 15, 171 
Volunteers, 159, 205 


Walls of City, in, 124 
Wan Doo Siensang, 47 
Warrior of Heaven, 84 
Water Tower, 26 
— Tower, French, 96, 

Water-wheels, 130, 196 
Waterworks, 26, 66 

— French, 96 
Weather, 198 
Weights and Measures, 

Wenchang, 117 
Whangpoo, 135, 196, 208 
Wharves, 213 
Wheelbarrow Riots, 206 
Wheelbarrows, 133 
Widow's Monument, 31 
' ' Willow-pattern ' ' Tea 

House, 117 
Wood-carving, xx, 13, 98 
Woo Sing Ding, 116 
Woosung, 132 

— Hotel, 133 

— Railway, 132 
Wusieh, 141 

Yacht Club, 185 

Yamen, City Lieu- 
tenant's, 123 

— Taotai's, 33 

Yang-king-pang Creek, 

Yangtszekiang, 134 

Yates, Dr., 147 

Young Men's Christian 
Association, 169 

Yu Yuen Gardens, 34, 

Zi-Ka-Wei (see Siccawei) 
Zen Sung Aye, 27 
Zung Au Aye, 35 

— Che Dong, 17 

— Wong Miao, 119 

Printed and bound by Hasdl, Watson & Viney, Ld., London and Aylei,oury. 





An Album of 21 beautifully finished Views of SHANGHAI 
reproduced from Photographs: — 

1. The Bund and Public Gar- ! 11. The "litis" Memorial. 


2. Shanghai from the Signal 


3. The Shanghai Club. 
i. The Foochow Road. 

5. Hankow Road and Custom 


6. The Custom House. 

7. Holy Trinity Cathedral. 

8. The Bund, looking North. 

9. The Bund Foreshore. 

10. The Bund, from Kinkiang 

12, 13, & 14. The Funeral Pro- 
cession of the Murdered 
Members of the Tsung-li 

Yamen. (3 Views.) 

15. Boat House and Garden 


16. Chinese Public Gardens. 

17. The Racecourse. 

18. The Country Club. 

19. The Bubbling Well. 

20. Loong Hwa Pagoda. 

21. The Yu Yuen Gardens. 

Price $2.00 complete. 


Views Illustrating the Scenic Beauties of 


and Neighbourhood. 

Hongkong 60 Years ago — The Queen Victoria Jubilee Statue 
— Hongkong from the Harbour — The Man-o'-War Anchorage — 
The Praya— Chinese Street — Public Gardens — Hongkong and 
Shanghai Bank — Happy Valley — Racecourse — Peak Tramway — 
Peak District — Chinese Junks, etc., etc. 

Price $2.00 complete. 

KELLY & WALSH, Ltd., Publishers. 


Who go to Shanghai will find 







Banks, Custom House, Shipping 
Offices, Public Gardens, Clubs, 
Theatre, Concert^rooms, and all 
First « Class Stores are grouped 
'- within a few yards of the <" 


Now under reconstruction on the most 
modern plans. 



Every Contfort for Visitors. 




Travellers to 





** CHEFOO. ** 

q-'fllf) f IR§T-CIsfi§§ tlOTeis is beautifullg 
situated on thjz Spach and commands 
extensive vipws on all sidgs of the spa and 
mountain sefznizrg for which Chefoo is 



Spacious Verandahs and 









Taking cargo on Through Bills of Lading for all EUROPEAN, 

Weekly Sailings for KOBE and YOKOHAMA. 

BUJTERFIELD & SWIRE, Agents (French bund). 


Semi-weekly Sailings from SHANGHAI for AMOY, 

Steamers leave SHANGHAI for WEI HAI WEI, CHEFOO, 
TIENSTIN, and NEWCHWANG Three Times a Week. 

Daily connection between CHEFOO and PORT ARTHUR. 

Company's Steamers leave SHANGHAI every WEDNESDAY 
and SATURDAY at midnight, for HANKOW, calling en route 

Steamers connect at HANKOW for YOCHOW, SHASI 
and ICHANG. 


Steamers leave SHANGHAI for NINGPO every MONDAY, 
WEDNESDAY, and FRIDAY Afternoon at 4 o'clock, and 



Company's Steamers leave HONG KONG once every Three 


Sailings from HONG KONG to MANILA, and vice versa, 
once every five days. 

Sailings from HONG KONG to CEBU and ILOILO, and 
vice versa about once every Ten Days. 

BUTTERFIELD & SWIRE, Agents (french bund). 



for the conveyance of MAILS. 

Fleet, 79 a-^r^ Tonnage 
Vessels. 3&II^ 258,857 Tons. 


European Line 
American Line 
Bombay Line 
Australian Line 
Yokohama- Shanghai 


Koke - Vladivostock 

Kobe - Korea - North 

China Line 
Kobe - Tientsin Line 
Koke - New chwang 



Every 4 Weeks. 
Every 4 Weeks. 






Kobe-Yokohama-Otaru Line :— 
Via Eastern Coast Every 3 days. 

Yokohama-Kobe-Otaru Line : — 

Via Western Coast 4 times a month. 
Bonin Islands Line Monthly. 

Besides these there are frequent ser- 
vices between coast ports of Japan. 

Cheapest Rates for Round-the-World Tickets. 


Hongkong, Shanghai or Japan ports to Seattle, Wash., by N. Y. K, American 
Line Steamers, thence to New York or Montreal by the Line of the Great Northern. 
Railway Co. and connecting roads ; from New York or Montreal and thence to 
London by any of the Atlantic Liners, from London back to the Orient via Suez 
by N. Y. K. European Liners ; or vice versa. 


Yen 920 
Yen 890 


The attention of the travelling public is called particularly to the special 
advantage that passengers travelling by the steamers of the N. Y. K. will enjoy in 
having the option of travelling between Japan ports and Hongkong by any of the 
steamers on the Company's numerous services which sail frequently between 
Japan, Shanghai, and Hongkong. 

Another special facility is offered by the Nippon Yusen Kaisha which is offered 
by no other steamship lines touching Japan. Through passengers will be given 
the option of travelling between Kobe and Moji and vice versa by the Sanya 
Railway, by which, if they choose, they can economise time and break the sea 

Head Office: TOKIO, JAPAN. 
Branch Offices or Agencies in Principal Ports of the World. 

For further information apply to— 


2, North Yangtze Road, SHANGHAI.. 

Ttie Peninsular and 

Oriental Stearn 
Navigation Company. 

Incorporated by Royal Charter in 1840. 

Fortnightly Mail Service from China to Marseilles and 
London. Fortnightly and Intermediate to London Direct 


Aden, Colombo, Kobe, Nagasaki, Singapore, 
Bombay, Freemantle, Malta, Penang, Suez, Brin- 
disi, Gibraltar, Marseilles, Port Said, Sydney, 
Calcutta, Hongkong, Melbourne, Shanghai, Yoko- 
hama, and occasionally at Madras, Foochow, 


Cargo booked on Through Bill of Lading to Northern Con- 
tinental Ports, United States of America, [Canada, South 
America, Persia, 'Batoum, Mediterranean Ports, Indian Coast, 
Syria, Java, Sumatra, Burmah, Australian, Tasmanian and 
New Zealand Ports, etc., etc. 

For full particulars apply at the — 

Peninsular and Oriental Company's Offices: 

24, THE BUND, 




Paid-up Capital 


Reserve in Sterling - $10,000,000) 

„ Silver - 7,000,000* 

„ Liability of Proprietors 



Head Office : HONGKONG. 
Chief Manager- J. R. M. SMITH. 


Manager- H. M. BE VIS. 

( Sir 
Managers < . 





























London Bank ers : LONDON & COUNTY BANK INC CO., Ltd. 

SHANGHAI. — Interest allowed on Current Accounts at the 
rate of 2 per cent, per annum on the daily balances. 

On Fixed Deposits : 

For 3 months 3 per cent, per annum. 

i, 6 „ 4 „ ,, 

,, 12 ,, ... ■■■ --. ■■■ ■•■ 5 J) " 


Credits granted on approved Securities, and every description of 
Banking and Exchange business transacted. 

Drafts granted on London and the chief commercial places in Europe, 
India, Australia, America, China, and Japan. 

March is/, 1904. 


Head Office:— 



Shares of JE20 each 


Court of SHrectora, 1904-1905. 

William Christian, Esq. 
Sir Henry S. Cunningham, 

Sir Alfred Dent, K.C.M.G. 
Henry Neville Gladstone. 

Caleb Lewis. 

John Howard Gwyther, Esq.. 
Emile Levita, Esq. 
Sir Montagu C Turner. 
Lewis A. Wallace, Jun., Esq.. 
Jasper Young, Esq. 


T. H. Whitehead. 

Magnus Mow at, Esq. 


Maurice Nelson Girdle- j 
stone, Esq. | 





agencies ano JBrancbes. 




















(16, Exchange Place). 






B. SKOTTOWE, Manager. 



RussoXhinese Bank. 

Organised under Imperial Decree of 10th December, 1895. 

CAPITAL Roubles 15,000,000 

CAPITAL contributed 
by Chinese Govern- 
ment K. Taels 5,000,000 

RESERVE FUNDS ... Roubles 3,977,462 

Head Office: ST. PETERSBURG. 

Branches and Agencies: 

Andijan, Batoum, Blagowestehensk, Bodaibo, 
Boukhara, Busk, Calcutta, Chefoo, Dalny, Hailar, 
Hakodate, Hankow, Harbin, Hongkong, Irkutsk, 
Kalgan, Kaehgar, Khabarovsk, Khokand, 
Kiaehta, Kirin, Kobe, Kouldja, Krasnoiarsk, 
Kwantchendze, Moscou, Moukden, Nagasaki, 
Newehwang, Nieolajeffsk, Ouliasutai, Oupga, 
Paris, Peking, Port Arthur, Samareand, Shang- 
hai, Stretensk, Taehkent, Tchita, Thougoutehak, 
Tielin, Tientsin, Tsitsikar, Verehneoudinsk, Ver- 
niyy Vladivostoek, Yokohama, and Zeiskaia- 

Bankers : 

LONDON— Qlyn, Mills, Currie & Co. 

PARIS— Comptoir National d'Escompte de Paris, Banque 

de Paris et des Pays Bas. 
BERLIN— Mendelssohn & Co. 
HAMBURG— M. M. Warburg & Co. 
VIENNA— K. K. priv. Oesterr. Credit Anstalt fur Handel & 

AMSTERDAM— Lippmann, Rosenthal & Co. 

Special facilities for Russian Exchange. 

Foreign exchange on the principal cities of the world bought and sold. 


Go-Managers for China and Japan. 

Shanghai Office: 15, THE BUND. 


(Established 1880). 

Head Office: YOKOHAMA, JAPAN. 

SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL ... Yen 24,000,000 

PAID-UP CAPITAL Yen 18,000,000 

RESERVE FUND Yen 9,320,000 

London Bankers. 

Union of London and Smith's Bank, Ld., 
The London Joint Stock Bank, Ld. 
Parr's Bank, Ld. 

Branches and Agencies. 

Tokio, Kobe, Nagasaki, Lyons, London, New York, 

San Francisco, Honolulu, Bombay, Hongkong, 

Tientsin, Peking, Newchwang, etc. 

Shanghai Branch. 

INTEREST allowed on current account at the rate of 2 per cent, per 
annum on the daily balance of over two hundred taels. 

On Fixed Deposits: 

For 3 months, 3J per cent, per annum. 
„ 6 „ *i „ 
„ 12 „ 5J „ 

Drafts granted on principal places in Japan, Corea, Formosa, and China, 
.and the chief commercial places in Europe, India, and America, and every 
description of exchange business transacted. 

S. CHOH, Manager, 


March 10th, 1904. 


Organised under Decrees of 21st January, 1875; 20th February, 1888 ; 
and 16th May, 1900. 

CAPITAL Frs. 24,000,000 

RESERVES „ 3,607,603 

SPECIAL RESERVE „ 4,800,000 

Head Office: 15 BIS, RUE LAFFITTE, PARIS. 







Pnom-Penh. Hankeou. , 

Noumea. Canton. 

Hongkong. Bangkok. 

Shanghai. Pondiehery. 

In France. 

Comptoir National d'Eseompte de Paris. 
Credit Lyonnais. 

Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas. 
Credit Industriel et Commercial. 
Soeiete Generate. 


Messrs. Vernes & Co, 
„ Hottinguer & Co. 
„ Mallet Freres & Co. 
„ de Neuflize & Co. 

„ Miraband Puerari & Co. 

In London. 

The Union of London and Smith's Bank, Ld. 
Comptoir National d'Eseompte de Paris. 
Credit Lyonnais. 


Undertakes all banking operations and Exchange business, grants credits on 

goods and approved Securities and receives Deposits on current accounts and 

Fixed Deposits according to arrangement. 

Remington Typewriters 

do not depend on catchy talking points. They owe their 
supremacy solely to results, the amount and quality of the 
work they do, and the ease and speed with which they do it. 


Distributors for North China, 


ESTABLISHED 1875. Limited. 

Pian o forte Man ufacturers 

And Importers of 


Sole Agents for 










Price Lists forwarded on Application. 

S. MOUTRIE & CO., Limited. 

The Pianoforte and Music Warehouse, 



\ \ \ ENGLISH 

\ * Q o f% AND 

\ \ k \ AM ERICAN 



^ <■. 

V o ■ 

\£\ Proprietary 


PIVER'S \\y M 

Houbigants \\\ A " 

i-a^e o <IS Q o A Speciality. 
Assortment °Q V*^ ° 

- \ V \ 

Q ^«A c „ Prescriptions 
°a Dispensed 

ROGER \ e \ 

q Qualified 

* \C 

QALLETS \'o\ Chem,s!s 

Perfumes \ y> 


Q Only. 






.STOCK. \\JV^ f 



\ V \ 

Mactavish 8 Lehmann, 



Wholesale & Retail Druggists. 


Importers of: — 


PERFUMERY (English, French, and American), 









And Accessories for every Branch of Photography. 


DARK ROOM for Amateurs at Hongkew Medical Hall. 






Has Extensive Premises on the 


(Near the Race Course), 
With Branch Establishments in the 


(Central Stables), 







SHO tU Ro om. 

Saddlery, Pony Clothing & Stable Requisites. 


Telephone Communications with all the Principal Hotels. 


Robinson Piano Co., 






in "the East. 


Complete Stock of 




Telephone 868. 

fl. 5. Watson & Co., Ltd., 

Shanghai Pharmacy, 16, Nanking Road 

(Branch of The Hongkong Dispensary, Hongkong), 

<# Chemists, Perfumers, and Druggists' Sundrymet). £ 


(Price Lists on application.) 


(made in Hongkong). 


employed in the dispensing of Physicians' Prescriptions. 

> » * ■» C 

A Full and Varied Stock of 
American and Continental Patent Medicines, 

Perfumes, Medicated and Toilet Soaps, 
Surgical Dressings and Appliances, 

Medicated Lozenges. 

Sponges = 1baic JBrusbes == XTootb JBrusbes * 1bano Mirrors 
mall 3Brusbes » Clotbes JBrusbes == Sbaving JSrusbes. 



A Big Variety of Toilet Preparations. 

Burroughs, Wellcome & Co. ; s Tabloids and Preparations. 

McKesson & Robbin's Gelatine Coated Pills. 


Ulinsor $ Rtwton's Oil $ Ulatcr Colours, etc, 



> •'» < - 

A. S. WATSON «Sc Co., Ltd., 


Chinese Name : — Hung Chi. Telephone No, 414. 

The Standard Pharmacy 

575, Nanking Road. 




Physicians' prescriptions carefully dispensed by qualified 
Assistants only. 


ALLAN'S CHLOR.OS an improved cornTrenjedy. 


an improved combination. 


&c, &c, &c. 

Perfumery and Toilet Requisites, 

Druggists Sundries 


Sick=room Accessories. 

All orders and inquiries promptly attended [to, 



A. Chazalon & Co. 

Paris : — 14, rue des Messageries. 




Tobacconist, General Forwarding: 

and Commission Agent. 

Sole Agent 


WINE . . . 



J. Buchanan & Co.: House of Commons. 

J. & S. Nicholson & Son : Old Tom. 

J. Nicot & Co. 

Pastureau Freres et Fils : Black Head 

No. 75 Jamaica Rum. 
Galibert Varon, 

Cette : 

Port, Sherry, 



Galibert & Varon : 

Les Neveux de 

Paul Court, Dijon. 
P. Taillan & Co., 

and Liqueurs. 

A. Droz & Co., Bordeaux. 
Cocoa chouva. 

Duminy & Co., Ay s/Marne. 

Veuve Cliquot, Ponsardin. 

Werle & Co. 

Louis Roederer, Reims. 

Bouvet, Ladubay & Co., Saumur. 


Pschoor, Munich. 

Brasserie du Centre, Clermont-Ferrand. 

Bass & Co. : Pale Ale and Stout. 

Rodel Fils Freres, Bordeaux. 

J. B. & A. Artaud Freres, Marseilles. 

L. A. Price, Bordeaux. 



(Established 1869.) 

^ 33, Kiangse Road, Shanghai. ■# 

Next door to Messrs. Weeks & Co. 


Comprising- — 
Gold Lacquer, Hammered and Inlaid Metal Work, Ivory Carvings, 
Lacquer and Inlaid Cabinets, Bronze Wares, Screens, Cloisonnes, 
Japanese Carved Wood Furniture, Kimonos, Ladies Drawn Work, 
and Fancy Blouses, Table Centres, Silverware (Japanese) of every 
description, Gongs, Embroideries, Satsuma and other Porcelains, 

Etc- Etc. 

Goods purchased at our establishment are packed free 
of charge and forwarded to all parts of the world. 

L. Moore & Co. 



Excellent Salesrooms, for 

The Exhibition of Goods to be sold, at 

35, Kiangse Road. 


Goods bought on Commission and forwarded to all parts of 
the world. 

The oldest established firm of General Auctioneers 
in Shanghai. 



(Established 1892). 


Japanese Art*<2urios, 


Various Borne Manufacturers* 




A38, Nanking Road, SHANGHAI. 


3eux1ler, Gold- and SilccrSmitD. 


Silks of all kinds, "Embroideries, 

Silk Handkerchiefs, and Silk Dress Materials, etc. 


Also European Ornamental Blackwood Furnitures, 

Ivory and Fancy Goods in Great Variety 
always on hand. 


No. 21, Nanking Road, SHANGHAI. 



Have for Sale a Large Selection of 


Comprising a very Complete Assortment of 



Hand-Painted Japanese Studies. 



12 Whole Plate Collotype Views 



And containing the following:— 
THE BUND (looking South). 


Price $3.00. 

KELLY & WALSH (Limited), Publishers. 




Manila & Havana Cigars, 



Reina Victorias. 
High Life in the East. 


Nuevo Cortado. 
Nuevo Habano. 
Regalia Chicas. 

By dint of special and careful selection on the part of our Agents in the 
Philippine Islands, and natural instead of artificial seasoning, we have long 
held and maintained the very best reputation for the excellence of our 
Manila Cigars. 


Churrucas-Bock y Ca's— Henry Upman's. 

Imported direct from Cuba in small quantities and frequent shipments 
to ensure freshness. 



Smith's Glasgow Mixture. 

Craven Mixture. 

Capstan Navy Cut. 
Golden Honey Dew. 
Superb Gold Flake. 


Melanchrinos— Nos. 2, 4, 6, 

8, 10, 14. 
Quo Vadis. 
Waldorf Cigarillos. 

Ogden's Guinea Gold. 
Wills' Three Castles. 
State Express. 

All in hermetically sealed , Tins. 


We have always on hand a large assortment of Briar Pipes in a variety 
of patterns, including L'oewe's BBB own make, and other well-known 
brands. Cigar and Cigarette Tubes in Amber, and Meerschaum with 
Amber Mouth-pieces, Cigar and Cigarette Cases, Pouches, etc. 


__J I I (lEWCtMtTEBil 

nr Sr 




'in ROAD 






























































Scale. 900 Feet to one Inch 

6h>ti ford's (rtopraptncal tstublu}tmenL,Lc»iAi»t 



Hong Kong: 

Dodwell & Co., Ltd. 





Messrs. Stevenson & Co. 




are afforded by THE STANDARD to Assurers in the Far East. 

Among others are the following : — 
(i). Immediate acceptance and issue of Policy. No 

provisional acceptance or reference to Head Office. 
(2). Claims and Surrenders paid, and LOANS 

ADVANCED on the spot without reference 

(3). Liberal Paid-up Policies, Surrender and Loan 

values granted after three years. 
(4). Immediate reduction to Home Rates without 

medical examination upon leaving the East either 

permanently or for a short period. 
(5). Exceptionally liberal conditions for payment of 

premiums in arrear. Premiums on 5 year old. 
„,f»$ policies accepted within 13 months from due date 
\' without fine, interest alone being charged. 
(6). Premiums may be paid in half-yearly or quarterly 

instalments without any addition. 

For full particulars and a copy of the Company's 

Apply to — 


Standard Life Office, 




Dodwell & Co., 


Compare our Rates 
with those of other 
companies, before , 
\ assuring- elsewhere! / Dodwell & Co., Ltd, 





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